- MDPI AG
Enzymes are biocatalysts. They are useful in environmentally friendly production processes and have high potential for industrial applications. However, because of problems with operational stability, cost, and catalytic efficiency, many enzymatic processes have limited applications. The use of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) has been introduced as an effective carrier-free immobilization method. This immobilization method is attractive because it is simple and robust, and unpurified enzymes can be used. Coimmobilization of different enzymes can be achieved. CLEAs generally show high catalytic activities, good storage and operational stabilities, and good reusability. In this review, we summarize techniques for the preparation of CLEAs for use as biocatalysts. Some important applications of these techniques in chemical synthesis and environmental applications are also included. CLEAs provide feasible and efficient techniques for improving the properties of immobilized enzymes for use in industrial applications.
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