- ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
The hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare forms appressoria as infection structures and primarily establishes biotrophic infection in cucumber epidermal cells. Subsequently, it develops necrotrophic infection. In the pre-invasion stage, morphogenesis of appressoria of C. orbiculare is triggered by signals from the plant surface. We found that C. orbiculare PAG1 (Perish-in-the-Absence-of-GYP1), a component of MOR [morphogenesis-related NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) kinase network] plays an essential role as a key component of the plant-specific signaling pathway and that hydrolysis of cutin by a spore surface esterase creates a cutin monomer that constitutes a key plant-derived signal. Development of the infection structure of C. orbiculare is strictly regulated by the cell cycle and we found that proper regulation of G1/S progression via two-component GAP genes, consisting of BUB2 (Budding-Uninhibited-by-Benomyl-2) and BFA1 (Byr-Four-Alike-1) is essential for the establishment of successful infection. In the post-invasion stage, the establishment of the biotrophic phase of hemibiotrophic fungi is crucial for successful infection. We found that C. orbiculare WHI2 (WHIsky-2), an Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress regulator homolog, is involved in the phase transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy through TOR (Target of Rapamycin) signaling, and is thus essential for full pathogenesis. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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