NAKAMURA Takashi

J-GLOBAL         Last updated: Jan 25, 2019 at 12:08
 
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Name
NAKAMURA Takashi
URL
http://db.tohoku.ac.jp/whois/e_detail/404b4db75c17e4c34eb98e04a1149d1a.html
Affiliation
Tohoku University
Section
Graduate School of Dentistry Dentistry Oral Biology Dental Pharmacology
Job title
Associate Professor
Degree
歯学(Osaka University)
ORCID ID
0000-0001-9904-1037

Research Areas

 
 

Academic & Professional Experience

 
Oct 2007
 - 
Mar 2009
Thomas Jefferson University
 
Sep 2004
 - 
Sep 2007
職員研究員, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
 
Nov 1999
 - 
Aug 2004
Visiting Fellow, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Resarch
 
Jun 1998
 - 
Oct 1999
関西ろうさい病院
 

Education

 
 
 - 
Mar 1998
口腔外科学, Graduate School, Division of Dental Research, Osaka University
 
 
 - 
Mar 1994
歯学科, Faculty of Dentistry, Hiroshima University
 

Awards & Honors

 
May 2010
小児歯科学会優秀発表賞, 日本小児歯科学会
 
Oct 2007
NIDCR Incentive Award, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
 
Nov 2006
NIDCR Individual Cash Award, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
 
Jan 2005
NIH Fellows Award for Research Excellence, National Institutes of Health
 
Jan 2001
Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences Fellowship Award, NIH
 

Published Papers

 
Kikuiri T, Mishima H, Imura H, Suzuki S, Matsuzawa Y, Nakamura T, Fukumoto S, Yoshimura Y, Watanabe S, Kinoshita A, Yamada T, Shindoh M, Sugita Y, Maeda H, Yawaka Y, Mikoya T, Natsume N, Yoshiura KI
American journal of medical genetics. Part A   176(12) 2614-2622   Dec 2018   [Refereed]
Chiba Y, He B, Yoshizaki K, Rhodes C, Ishijima M, Bleck CKE, Stempinski E, Chu EY, Nakamura T, Iwamoto T, de Vega S, Saito K, Fukumoto S, Yamada Y
The Journal of biological chemistry      Nov 2018   [Refereed]
Maruyama K, Sakisaka Y, Suto M, Tada H, Nakamura T, Yamada S, Nemoto E
Frontiers in physiology   9 802   2018   [Refereed]
Tsutomu Iwamoto, Takashi Nakamura, Masaki Ishikawa, Masaki Ishikawa, Keigo Yoshizaki, Keigo Yoshizaki, Asuna Sugimoto, Hiroko Ida-Yonemochi, Hayato Ohshima, Masahiro Saito, Yoshihiko Yamada, Satoshi Fukumoto
PLoS ONE   12    May 2017
© This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 pu...
Takashi Nakamura, Takashi Nakamura, Lucia Jimenez-Rojo, Eiki Koyama, Maurizio Pacifici, Susana de Vega, Masahiro Iwamoto, Satoshi Fukumoto, Fernando Unda, Yoshihiko Yamada
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research   32 601-610   Mar 2017
© 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research The synchronization of cell proliferation and cytodifferentiation between dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells is required for the morphogenesis of teeth with the correct functional shapes a...
Nakamura Takashi, Chiba Yuta, Naruse Masahiro, Saito Kan, Harada Hidemitsu, Fukumoto Satoshi
International Journal of Oral Science   8 205-212   Dec 2016   [Refereed]
© The Author(s) 2016. Tooth crown morphogenesis is tightly regulated by the proliferation and differentiation of dental epithelial cells. Globoside (Gb4), a globo-series glycosphingolipid, is highly expressed during embryogenesis as well as organo...
Liwen Li, Qinghuang Tang, Takashi Nakamura, Jun Gyo Suh, Hayato Ohshima, Han Sung Jung, Han Sung Jung
Scientific Reports   6    Nov 2016
The anatomic and functional combinations of cusps and lophs (ridges) define the tooth shape of rodent molars, which distinguishes species. The species-specific cusp patterns result from the spatiotemporal induction of enamel knots (EKs), which req...
Yukihiko Sakisaka, Sousuke Kanaya, Sousuke Kanaya, Takashi Nakamura, Masato Tamura, Hidetoshi Shimauchi, Eiji Nemoto
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications   478 527-532   Sep 2016
© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Wnt3a is a secreted glycoprotein that activates the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β)/β-catenin signaling pathway through low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)5/6 co-receptors. Wnt3a has been implicated in p...
E. Nemoto, Y. Sakisaka, M. Tsuchiya, M. Tsuchiya, M. Tamura, T. Nakamura, T. Nakamura, S. Kanaya, S. Kanaya, M. Shimonishi, H. Shimauchi
Journal of Periodontal Research   51 164-174   Apr 2016
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background and Objective: Dental follicle cells, putative progenitor cells for cementoblasts, osteoblasts and periodontal ligament cells, interplay with Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells during tooth roo...
Jia Liu, Jia Liu, Jia Liu, Kan Saito, Yuriko Maruya, Yuriko Maruya, Takashi Nakamura, Aya Yamada, Emiko Fukumoto, Momoko Ishikawa, Tsutomu Iwamoto, Kanako Miyazaki, Keigo Yoshizaki, Lihong Ge, Satoshi Fukumoto
Scientific Reports   6    Mar 2016
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate hard tissue formation, including bone and tooth. Growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), a known BMP, is expressed in cartilage and regulates chondrogenesis, and mutations have been shown to cause osteoa...
Aya Yamada, Masaharu Futagi, Emiko Fukumoto, Kan Saito, Keigo Yoshizaki, Masaki Ishikawa, Makiko Arakaki, Ryoko Hino, Yu Sugawara, Momoko Ishikawa, Masahiro Naruse, Kanako Miyazaki, Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto
Journal of Biological Chemistry   291 904-912   Jan 2016
© 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Cell-cell interaction via the gap junction regulates cell growth and differentiation, leading to formation of organs of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role...
Mayu Tadaki, Mayu Tadaki, Takahisa Anada, Yukari Shiwaku, Yukari Shiwaku, Takashi Nakamura, Masanori Nakamura, Masaru Kojima, Tatsuo Arai, Satoshi Fukumoto, Osamu Suzuki
RSC Advances   6(67) 62109-62118   Jan 2016   [Refereed]
© 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The present study was designed to investigate whether a three dimensional (3D) culture of the rat incisor-derived dental epithelial cell line SF2 enhances its differentiation into ameloblast-like cells. SF2 c...
The Effect of Three-dimensional Culture on The Ameloblastic Differentiation of Dental Epithelial Cells
2016 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MICRO-NANOMECHATRONICS AND HUMAN SCIENCE (MHS)      2016   [Refereed]
Aurrekoetxea Maitane, Irastorza Igor, Garc{í}a-Gallastegui Patricia, Jim{é}nez-Rojo Lucia, Nakamura Takashi, Yamada Yoshihiko, Ibarretxe Gaskon, Unda Fernando J
Frontiers in cell and developmental biology   4    2016   [Refereed]
Yoichi Ohta, Takahiro Okabe, Colleen Larmour, Agnese Di Rocco, Marijke W. Maijenburg, Amanda Phillips, Nancy A. Speck, Shigeyuki Wakitani, Takashi Nakamura, Yoshihiko Yamada, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Maurizio Pacifici, Masahiro Iwamoto
Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.)   67 2679-2690   Oct 2015
© 2015, American College of Rheumatology. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether and how the transcription factor Erg participates in the genesis, establishment, and maintenance of articular cartilage. METHODS: Floxed Erg mice were mated with Gdf5-Cre mi...
Kan Saito, Emiko Fukumoto, Aya Yamada, Kenji Yuasa, Keigo Yoshizaki, Tsutomu Iwamoto, Tsutomu Iwamoto, Masahiro Saito, Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto
PLoS ONE   10    Apr 2015
© 2015 Saito et al. The dental epithelium and extracellular matrix interact to ensure that cell growth and differentiation lead to the formation of teeth of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of fibronectin in differentiation of t...
白血病治療を目指したヒト乳歯歯髄細胞から人工骨髄誘導法の開発
山田 亜矢, 菊入 崇, 中村 卓史, 新垣 真紀子, 齋藤 幹, 福本 敏
小児歯科学雑誌   53(2) 220-220   Apr 2015
Nakamura, Takashi Yoshitomi, Yasuo Sakai, Kiyoshi Patel, Vyomesh Fukumoto, Satoshi Yamada, Yoshihiko
J Cell Sci   127(24) 5261-5272   Oct 2014   [Refereed]
Nakamura, Takashi Naruse, Masahiro Chiba, Yuta Komori, Toshihisa Sasaki, Keiichi Iwamoto, Masahiro Fukumoto, Satoshi
J Cell Physiol   230(4) 922-929   Sep 2014   [Refereed]
Ryoko Hino, Masaharu Futagi, Aya Yamada, Makiko Arakaki, Kan Saito, Yu Sugawara, Mariko Ono, Emiko Fukumoto, Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto
Pediatric Dental Journal   24(2) 78-82   Mar 2014   [Refereed]
Satoshi Fukumotoa, Takashi Nakamura, Aya Yamada, Makiko Arakaki, Kan Saito, Juan Xu, Emiko Fukumoto, Yoshihiko Yamada
Japanese Dental Science Review   50(2) 47-54   Jan 2014
Ameloblasts secrete enamel matrix proteins, including amelogenin, ameloblastin, enamelin, amelotin, and Apin/odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (Apin/ODAM). Amelogenin is the major protein component of the enamel matrix. Amelogenin, amelobl...
Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto
Journal of Oral Biosciences   55(4) 180-183   Jun 2013
Tooth development is initiated with placode formation followed by thickening of the oral ectoderm-derived dental epithelium. The dental epithelium then undergoes invagination into the dental mesench-yme, which is derived from the cranial neural cr...
Tsutomu Iwamoto, Masaki Ishikawa, Mariko Ono, Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto, Yoshihiko Yamada
Journal of Oral Biosciences   55(1) 29-33   Feb 2013
Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are essential for cell differentiation, function, and maintenance of skeletal tissue. Gap junction proteins, composed of connexin (Cx) and pannexin (Panx) families, mediate these interactions and play an impo...
Ikeuchi, Tomoko Nakamura, Takashi Fukumoto, Satoshi Takada, Haruhiko
INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY   15(1) 15-22   Jan 2013   [Refereed]
Ibarretxe Gaskon, Aurrekoetxea Maitane, Crende Olatz, Badiola Iker, Jimenez-Rojo Lucia, Nakamura Takashi, Yamada Yoshihiko, Unda Fernando
Cell Tissue Res   350(1) 95-107   Oct 2012   [Refereed]
Nemoto, Eiji Ebe, Yukari Kanaya, Sousuke Tsuchiya, Masahiro Nakamura, Takashi Tamura, Masato Shimauchi, Hidetoshi
BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   422(4) 627-632   Jun 2012   [Refereed]
Arakaki, Makiko Ishikawa, Masaki Nakamura, Takashi Iwamoto, Tsutomu Yamada, Aya Fukumoto, Emiko Saito, Masahiro Otsu, Keishi Harada, Hidemitsu Yamada, Yoshihiko Fukumoto, Satoshi
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY   287(13) 10590-10601   Mar 2012   [Refereed]
Aya Yamada, Tsutomu Iwamoto, Emiko Fukumoto, Makiko Arakaki, Ryoko Miyamoto, Yu Sugawara, Hideji Komatsu, Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto
Pediatric Dental Journal   22 55-63   Jan 2012
AIM: Fluoride, well known as a specific and effective caries prophylactic agent, also affects the differentiation and function of ameloblasts. High dose sodium fluoride (NaF) induces enamel hypoplasia, also called enamel fluorosis, whereas the siz...
Satoshi Fukumoto, Makiko Arakaki, Tsutomu Iwamoto, Aya Yamada, Ryoko Miyamoto, Masahiro Naruse, Takashi Nakamura
Interface Oral Health Science 2011   327-333   Jan 2012
© Springer 2012. The interaction between the epithelium and mesenchyme induces specific molecular and cellular changes that lead to organogenesis. These interactions are particularly crucial during the initiation of the development of ectodermal o...
Takashi Nakamura, Yoshihiko Yamada, Satoshi Fukumoto
Interface Oral Health Science 2011   14-21   Jan 2012
© Springer 2012. A variety of vertebrate organs, including teeth, begins their development by inductive sequential and reciprocal interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme. In tooth development, the interactions between ectodermal-derived epi...
Tsutomu Iwamoto, Mariko Ono, Makiko Arakaki, Takashi Nakamura, Aya Yamada, Satoshi Fukumoto
Interface Oral Health Science 2011   346-348   Jan 2012
© Springer 2012. Gap junctional communications play a crucial role for organogenesis including cartilage development. Pannexin 3 (Panx3) belongs to the new member of the gap junction pannexin family. However, the expression and function of Panx3 h...
Kamasaki, Y. Nakamura, T. Yoshizaki, K. Iwamoto, T. Yamada, A. Fukumoto, E. Maruya, Y. Iwabuchi, K. Furukawa, K. Fujiwara, T. Fukumoto, S.
JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH   91(1) 78-83   Jan 2012   [Refereed]
Tsutomu Iwamoto, Aya Yamada, Makiko Arakaki, Yu Sugawara, Mariko Ono, Masaharu Futaki, Keigo Yoshizaki, Emiko Fukumoto, Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto
Journal of Oral Biosciences   53(1) 13-21   Sep 2011
Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto, Yoshihiko Yamada
Journal of Oral Biosciences   53(1) 22-30   Sep 2011
Ishikawa, Masaki Iwamoto, Tsutomu Nakamura, Takashi Doyle, Andrew Fukumoto, Satoshi Yamada, Yoshihiko
JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY   193(7) 1257-1274   Jun 2011   [Refereed]
Expression and Functional Roles of Pannexin 3 in Odontoblast Proliferation and Differentiation
Iwamoto, Tsutomu Ono, Mariko Nakamura, Takashi Yamada, Aya Yamada, Yoshihiko Fukumoto, Satoshi
FASEB JOURNAL   25    Apr 2011   [Refereed]
Diverse functions of Epiprofin in ectodermal organogenesis
Nakamura, Takashi Fukumoto, Satoshi Yamada, Yoshihiko
FASEB JOURNAL   25    Apr 2011   [Refereed]
Takashi Nakamura, Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto, Yoshihiko Yamada
Journal of Oral Biosciences   53 22-30   Jan 2011
The developing tooth is a good model for studying the mechanism of organogenesis. Tooth development begins as the placode formation with the thickening and invaginating of the oral ectoderm into the dental mesenchyme. A series of reciprocal intera...
Tsutomu Iwamoto, Aya Yamada, Makiko Arakaki, Yu Sugawara, Mariko Ono, Masaharu Futaki, Keigo Yoshizaki, Emiko Fukumoto, Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto
Journal of Oral Biosciences   53 13-21   Jan 2011
Neurotrophic factors are soluble growth factors predominantly expressed in vertebrate nervous systems and have been well-characterized for their critical roles in neural tissues. Recent studies have revealed that neurotrophin factors and their rec...
Epiprofin/Sp6: a new player in the regulation of tooth development.
Jimenez-Rojo, Lucia Ibarretxe, Gaskon Aurrekoetxea, Maitane de Vega, Susana Nakamura, Takashi Yamada, Yoshihiko Unda, Fernando
Histol. Histopathol.   25(12) 1621-1630   Dec 2010   [Refereed]
【知っておきたい「小児歯科」】 小児歯科で取り組む再生医療
福本敏, 山田亜矢, 岩本勉, 中村卓史
小児科臨床   63(11) 2303-2307   Nov 2010   [Invited]
象牙芽細胞分化におけるギャップ結合分子の発現および機能解析
岩本勉, 中村卓史, 吉崎恵吾, 山田亜矢, 福本敏
Journal of Oral Biosciences   52(Suppl) 154-154   Sep 2010
神経栄養因子による歯原性上皮細胞の増殖、分化制御機構の解明
小野真理子, 岩本勉, 吉崎恵吾, 中村卓史, 山田亜矢, 宮本綾子, 福本敏
Journal of Oral Biosciences   52(Suppl) 134-134   Sep 2010
インテグリン-フィラミンA複合体による歯の形態形成の分子制御
宮本綾子, 山田亜矢, 中村卓史, 岩本勉, 小野真理子, 福本敏
Journal of Oral Biosciences   52(Suppl) 127-127   Sep 2010
歯科再生医療に歯の発生生物学はどのように貢献してきたか、そして今後どのように貢献できるか 歯原性上皮の分化の分子制御メカニズム
福本敏, 中村卓史, 山田亜矢, 新垣真紀子, 岩本勉
Journal of Oral Biosciences   52(Suppl) 71-71   Sep 2010   [Invited]
Iwamoto, Tsutomu Nakamura, Takashi Doyle, Andrew Ishikawa, Masaki de Vega, Susana Fukumoto, Satoshi Yamada, Yoshihiko
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY   285(24) 18948-18958   Jun 2010   [Refereed]
器官形成における転写因子エピプロフィンの機能
中村卓史, 岩本勉, 山田亜矢, 山田吉彦, 福本敏
東北大学歯学雑誌   29(1) 31-32   Jun 2010
山田亜矢, 岩本勉, 中村卓史, 福本敏
小児歯科学雑誌   48(3) 374-380   Jun 2010
Wu, Nan Iwamoto, Tsutomu Sugawara, Yu Futaki, Masaharu Yoshizaki, Keigo Yamamoto, Shinya Yamada, Aya Nakamura, Takashi Nonaka, Kazuaki Fukumoto, Satoshi
ARCHIVES OF ORAL BIOLOGY   55(6) 426-434   Jun 2010   [Refereed]
Cha Hee-Jae, Philp Deborah, Lee Soo-Hyun, Moon Hye-Sung, Kleinman Hynda K, Nakamura Takashi
Int J Dev Biol   54(1) 135-140   Apr 2010   [Refereed]

Misc

 
中村 卓史, 成瀬 正啓, 齋藤 幹, 福本 敏
腎と骨代謝   29(1) 15-24   Jan 2016
歯の最外層は,エナメルと呼ばれる高度に石灰化した組織で覆われている.エナメルは,皮膚や毛,爪などと同様の外胚葉系上皮細胞が分化したエナメル芽細胞によって形成される,生体で唯一上皮組織が産生する硬組織である.エナメル芽細胞は,器官形成期のみ限定的に存在している細胞で,歯の発生が完了すると退縮上皮となり消滅してしまう.このため,すべての永久歯の発生が完了した成人では,エナメル芽細胞は存在せず,損傷したエナメル質を修復できる生物学的プロセスはなく,損傷はすべて不可逆性である.歯の再生医療を考えた...
エピプロフィンによる上皮細胞増殖制御機構(Molecular mechanism of Epiprofin in epithelial cell proliferation)
中村 卓史, 福本 敏
Journal of Oral Biosciences Supplement   2014 123-123   Sep 2014
T. Nakamura, T. Aikawa, M. Iwamoto-Enomoto, M. Iwamoto, Y. Higuchi, M. Pacifici, N. Kinto, A. Yamaguchi, S. Noji, K. Kurisu, T. Matsuya
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications   247 910   Jun 1998

Books etc

 
新規転写因子エピプロフィンによる副甲状腺ホルモン発現制御
Takashi Nakamura, Satoshi Fukumoto, Hannah M Nakamura, Yuta Chiba, Yoshihiko Yamada, and Masahiro Iwamoto (Part:Joint Work)
Feb 2014   
小児歯科で取り組む再生医療
福本敏、山田亜矢、岩本勉、中村卓史
日本小児医事出版社   Nov 2010   ISBN:0021-518X
歯の再生-歯の発生生物学から歯の再生研究まで
中村 卓史 ed. 上田実 (Part:Joint Work, 歯の発生初期と歯胚形成の分子機構, 20-28)
真興交易医書出版部   Sep 2008   

Conference Activities & Talks

 
Roles of Epiprofin in dental epithelial cell differentiation
NAKAMURA Takashi
IOHS 2019   11 Jan 2019   
Takahisa Anada, Mayu Tadaki, Mayu Tadaki, Yukari Shiwaku, Yukari Shiwaku, Takashi Nakamura, Masanori Nakamura, Masaru Kojima, Tatsuo Arai, Satoshi Fukumoto, Osamu Suzuki
2016 International Symposium on Micro-NanoMechatronics and Human Science, MHS 2016   18 Jan 2017   
© 2016 IEEE. We have developed three-dimensional (3D) cell culture devices. The present study investigated that the effect of 3D culture of rat incisor-derived dental epithelial cells on their differentiation into ameloblast-like cells.
組織再生に関わる基礎研究基盤の現状 エピプロフィンは歯原性上皮細胞のエナメル芽細胞系への誘導と分化を制御する多機能制御因子である
山田 吉彦, 酒井 陽, 千葉 雄太, Mahboubi Darius, 池内 友子, 石河 真幸, 中村 卓史, 福本 敏
Journal of Oral Biosciences Supplement   Sep 2016   
骨芽細胞様細胞MC3T3-E1細胞に於ける亜鉛イオンによる過分極応答
光 夢凱, 吉田 卓史, 中村 卓史, 若森 実
Journal of Oral Biosciences Supplement   Sep 2016   
エピプロフィンによる骨代謝調節
中村 卓史, 中村 友昭, 若森 実, 福本 敏
Journal of Oral Biosciences Supplement   Sep 2016   

Social Contribution

 
人工的に歯のエナメル質を形成することに成功
[TV or radio appearance, Contribution]  7 Nov 2016
国立大学法人東北大学は、歯の発生やかたちの制御に関わる分子の役割を解明する過程で、エナメル質の形成のマスター遺伝子の同定と機能解析に成功し、どのように歯のエナメルが作られ、また、歯のかたちを制御しているのかを明らかにしました。

本研究は東北大学歯学研究科歯科薬理学分野の中村卓史准教授、小児発達歯科学分野の福本敏教授らと、米国国立衛生研究所との共同研究による成果です。

私たちの歯の最外層はエナメル質という構造で守られており、体の中で最も硬い組織です。骨や軟骨などの硬組織と異なり、歯のエナ...
皮膚、毛などの増殖や分化 同一遺伝子関与
[TV or radio appearance, Contribution]  河北新報他  25 Nov 2014
再生医療・がん治療へ道

 東北大大学院歯学研究科の中村卓史准教授(再生医療)、福本敏教授(小児歯科)らの研究グループは、歯、皮膚、毛など「上皮系器官」の細胞の増殖や分化に同じ遺伝子が関わっていることを突き止めた。形や大きさの制御が難しかった歯や皮膚の再生医療に道を開くとともに、がんの診断や治療への応用が期待されるという。
 研究グループは、歯などの形成に関わる遺伝子「エピプロフィン」を欠損させたマウスやヒトの細胞を用い、上皮系器官ができる過程を調べた。
 歯や皮膚の元となる組織幹細胞は分...