HOSONO Takahiro

J-GLOBAL         Last updated: Jul 5, 2019 at 11:59
 
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Name
HOSONO Takahiro
URL
http://accafe.jp/hosono/
Affiliation
Kumamoto University
Section
Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology
Job title
Associate Professor
Degree
Ph.D in Science(Tsukuba University)
Other affiliation
Research Organization for Advanced Science and Technology (IROAST)
ORCID ID
0000-0001-7200-7912

Profile

Origin of my research field is geology (petrology and mineral resources) with a special focus on isotope geochemistry. I also have research experiences in the field of cultural property science. Around the year 2005, my research interest gradually shifted towards fields related to the earth environmental issues, especially at near-surface environments including atmospheric, surface and subsurface, and costal environments, with an application of hydrological simulation models and stable- and radio-isotopes with other geochemical tools. My main field is Kumamoto, the largest groundwater city in Japan. However, target area is generally broad including Asia and Africa, where cities and regions are facing water problems in response to increasing water demand due to population increase. Please visit my HP for more detailed information.

Research Areas

 
 

Academic & Professional Experience

 
Apr 2019
 - 
Today
Associate Professor, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Kumamoto University
 
Apr 2014
 - 
Mar 2019
Associate Professor, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Kumamoto University
 
Aug 2017
 - 
Sep 2017
Visiting Associate Professor, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, France
 
Jun 2013
 - 
Mar 2014
Visiting Researcher, Faculty of Geology, University of Barcelona, Spain
 
Apr 2009
 - 
Mar 2014
Assistant Professor, Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University
 
Apr 2014
 - 
Mar 2019
Associate Professor, Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence ,Kumamoto University
 
May 2007
 - 
Mar 2009
Assistant Professor, Department of Earth Science and Technology, Akita University
 
Apr 2006
 - 
May 2007
JSPS Postdoc Fellow, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature
 
Apr 2005
 - 
Mar 2006
Research Fellow, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature
 
Apr 2003
 - 
Mar 2005
Assistant Professor, Department of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Waseda University
 

Education

 
Apr 1998
 - 
Mar 2003
Institute of Geoscience, Tsukuba University
 

Committee Memberships

 
Jan 2019
 - 
Today
Chief Guest Editor  Special Issue on Journal of Hydrology
 
Apr 2003
 - 
Today
Japanese Association of Groundwater Hydrology  Journal publication committee
 
Mar 2005
 - 
Nov 2005
Japanese Association of Hydrological Sciences  Journal publication committee
 
Apr 2002
 - 
Mar 2005
Society of Resource Geology  Committee member of PR and election
 

Awards & Honors

 
Sep 2017
Best Research Award, Japanese Association of Hydrological Sciences
Winner: 井手淨, 利部慎, 細野高啓, 嶋田純
 
May 2017
Best Paper Award, Japanese Association of Groundwater Hydrology
Winner: 森康二, 田原康博, 多田和広, 細野高啓, 嶋田純, 松永縁, 登坂博行
 
Jun 2004
Petrochemistry of volcanic rocks in the Hishikari mining area of southern Japan, with implications for the relative contribution of lower crust and mantle-derived basalt, Best Research Award, Society of Resource Geology
Winner: 細野高啓, 中野孝教
 

Published Papers

 
Groundwater nitrate contamination in an area using urban wastewaters for agricultural irrigation under arid climate condition, southeast of Tehran, Iran.
Nejatijahromi, Z., Nassery, H.R., Hosono, T., Nakhaei, M., Alijani, F., Okumura, A.
Agricultural Water Management   221 397-414   2019   [Refereed]
Sea surficial waves as a driving force that enhances the fresh shallow coastal groundwater flux into the oceans.
Nikpeyman, Y., Hosono, T., Ono, M., Yang, H., Ichiyanagi, K., Shimada, J., Takikawa, K.
Environmental Earth Sciences   78, 252    2019   [Refereed]
Recovery of lost nexus synergy via payment for environmental services in Kumamoto, Japan.
Taniguchi, M., Burnett, K., Shimada, J., Hosono, T.
Frontiers in Environmental Science   7, 28    2019   [Refereed]
Human-induced saltpetre: Dual (oxygen and nitrogen) isotopic constraints to the biogeochemical processes.
Mizota, C., Hosono, T., Matsunaga, M., Okumura, A., Yamanaka, T.
Archaeometry      2019   [Refereed]
Controlling factors and driving mechanisms of nitrate contamination in groundwater system of Bandung Basin, Indonesia, deduced by combined use of stable isotope ratios, CFC age dating, and socioeconomic parameters.
Taufiq, A., Effendi, A.J., Iskandar, I., Hosono, T., Hutasoit, L.M.
Water Research   148 292-305   2019   [Refereed]
Dual (oxygen and nitrogen) isotopic characterization of the museum archived nitrates from the United States of America, South Africa and Australia.
Mizota, C., Hosono, T., Matsunaga, M., Okumura, A.
Science of the Total Environment   625 627-632   2018   [Refereed]
Estimating silicate weathering timescales from geochemical modeling and spring water residence time in the Kirishima volcanic area, southern Japan.
Ide, K., Hosono, T., Hossain, S., Shimada, J.
Chemical Geology   488 44-55   2018   [Refereed]
Estimating groundwater mixing ratios from vertical flux processes due to excessive groundwater pumping using hydrogeochemical parameters and nitrate concentrations in the Bandung Basin, Indonesia.
Taufiq, A., Hosono, T., Iskandar, I., Effendi, A.J., Hutasoit, L.M.
Geologia Croatica   71(3) 173-184   2018   [Refereed]
Earthquake-induced structural deformations enhance long-term solute fluxes from active volcanic systems.
Hosono, T., Hartmann, J., Louvat, P., Amann, T., Washington, K.E., West, A.J., Okamura, K., Böttcher, M.E., Gaillardet, J.
Scientific Reports   8, 14809    2018   [Refereed]
Evaluations of the downward velocity of soil water movement in the unsaturated zone in a groundwater recharge area using δ18O tracer: the Kumamoto region, southern Japan.
Okumura, A., Hosono, T., Boateng, D., Shimada, J.
Geologia Croatia Journal   71, 2    2018   [Refereed]
On the use of coprostanol to identify source of nitrate pollution in groundwater.
Nakagawa, K., Amano, H., Takao, Y., Hosono, T., Berndtsson, R.
Journal of Hydrology   550 663-668   2017   [Refereed]
Drought analysis and its implication in sustainable water resource management in Barind area, Bangladesh.
Rahman, A.T.M.S., Jahan, C.S., Mazumder, Q.H., Kamruzzaman, Md., Hosono, T.,
Journal of the Gological Society of Indea   89(1) 47-56   2017   [Refereed]
Spatial distribution of microbial communities in the alluvial aquifer along the Oyodo River, Miyakonojo Basin, Japan.
Zeng, X., Hosono, T., Matsunaga, M., Ohta, H., Niidome, T., Shimada, J., Morimura, S.
Journal of Water and Environment Technology   15(4) 152-162   2017   [Refereed]
Impact of excessive groundwater pumping on rejuvenation processes in the Bandung basin (Indonesia) as determined by hydrogeochemistry and modeling.
Taufiq, A., Hosono, T., Ide, K., Kagabu, M., Iskandar, I., Effendi, A.J., Hutasoit, L.M., Shimada, J.
Hydrogeology Journal   26(4) 1263-1279   2017   [Refereed]
「企画」熊本地震による地下水環境変化
細野高啓, 山田千聡, 橋本美穂
日本水文科学会誌   47(2) 127-130   2017   [Refereed]
Geochemical processes controlling fluoride enrichment in groundwater at the western part of Kumamoto area, Japan.
Hossain, S., Hosono, T., Yang, H., Shimada, J.
Water, Air and Soil Pollution   114 104-109   2016   [Refereed]
Comparison of microbial communities inside and outside of a denitrification hotspot in confined groundwater.
Zeng, X., Hosono, T., Ohta, H., Niidome, T., Shimada, J., Morimura, S.
International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation   114 104-109   2016   [Refereed]
Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediments cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources.
Hosono, T., Alvarez, K., Muwae, M.
Science of the Total Environment   559 24-37   2016   [Refereed]
Oxygen and nitrogen isotopic constraints to the origin of saltpetre in historic gunpowder prevailed during the 19th century in Japan.
Mizota, C., Hosono, T., Matsunaga, M., Yamanaka, T.
Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports   6 547-556   2016   [Refereed]
Redox processes and occurrence of arsenic in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto Area, Japan.
Hossain, S., Hosono, T., Ide, K., Matsunaga, M., Shimada, J.
Environmental Earth Sciences   75(9) 1-19   2016   [Refereed]

Misc

 
Distribution patterns of salinity and 222Rn in Yatsushiro Inland Sea, Kyushu, Japan.
Nikpeyman, Y., Ono, M., Hosono, T., Yang, H., Ichiyanagi, K., Shimada, J., Takikawa, K.
IAHS Publ   365 49-54   2014   [Refereed]
Multiple-use of stable isotope ratios to understand groundwater quality changes in Kumamoto area, southern Japan.
Hosono, T., Tokunaga, T., Tsushima, A., Kagabu, M., Nakata, H., Shimada, J.
IAHS Publ   361 257-264   2013   [Refereed]
Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of water resources in the Banana Plain (Mungo Division) Cameroon.
Ako, A.A., Shimada, J., Ichiyanagi, K., Koike, K., Hosono, T., Takem, G.E.E., Irwan, I.
XXXVIII IAH Congress. University of Silesia Press   375-383   2010   [Refereed]
Sulfate and strontium isotopic variations of groundwater in the Lower Central Plain, Thailand.
Hosono, T., Buapeng, S., Onodera, S., Yamanaka, T., Shimada, J., Nakano, T., Taniguch, M.
IAHS Publ   329 284-290   2009   [Refereed]
Cause of groundwater contamination in Jakarta alluvium volcanic fan deduced by sulfate and strontium isotope ratios.
Hosono, T., Delinom, R., Onodera, S., Umezawa, Y., Nakano, T., Taniguchi, M.
IAHS Publ   329 201-206   2009   [Refereed]
Effect of urbanization on the groundwater discharge into Jakarta Bay.
Umezawa, Y., Onodera, S., Ishitobi, T., Hosono, T., Delinom, R., Burnett, W.C., Taniguchi, M.
IAHS Publ   329 233-240   2009   [Refereed]
Evaluation of nitrate attenuation potential in the groundwater of Jakarta metropolitan area, Indonesia.
Saito, M., Onodera, S., Umezawa, Y., Hosono, T., Shimizu, Y., Delinom, R., Taniguchi, M.
IAHS Publ   329 305-310   2009   [Refereed]
Comparative study on water quality among Asian megacities based on major ion concentrations. In: From Headwaters to the Ocean: Hydrological Changes and Watershed Management (Taniguchi, M., Burnttt, W.C., Fukushima, Y., Haigh, M. Umezawa, Y. editors)
Hosono, T., Umezawa, Y., Onodera, S., Wang, C-H., Siringan, F., Buapeng, S., Delinom, R., Nakano, T., Taniguchi, M.
Taylor and Francis, London, UK   295-300   2009   [Refereed]

Books etc

 
陸水の表層循環と地層の形成 (新しい地球惑星科学, 西山忠男,吉田茂夫編)
松田博貴, 細野高啓 (Part:Contributor)
培風館   Jan 2019   
Sustainable groundwater management in context of climate change in northwest Bangladesh. (Achievements and challenges of integrated river basin management. Komatina, D. editor)
Rahman, A.T.M.S., Hosono, T., Mazumder, Q.H., Jahan, C.S. (Part:Contributor)
IntechOpen   2018   
地下水硝酸汚染の現状と自然浄化の実態 (持続可能な地下水利用に向けた挑戦, 嶋田純, 上野眞也編)
細野高啓, 森村 茂 (Part:Contributor)
成文堂   2016   
地下水中の天然由来ヒ素汚染の実態とその対応策の提案 (持続可能な地下水利用に向けた挑戦, 嶋田純, 上野眞也編)
河原正泰, 細野高啓 (Part:Contributor)
成文堂   2016   
カメルーン山周辺の湧水群
細野高啓,Ako, A.A., Richard, A., 井手 淨
地下水学会誌   2015   
The NA (nitrate-arsenic) boundary as an important concept in aquatic environmental studies. (The Dilemma of Boundaries: Toward a New Concept of Catchment. Taniguchi, M., Shiraiwa, T. editors)
Hosono, T (Part:Contributor)
Springer-Verlag   2012   
ソウルの水環境(水環境と水環境問題) (アジアの都市と水環境 , 谷口真人, 金子慎治, 吉越昭久編)
細野高啓, 尹 昭苑, 梁 海根, 谷口智雅 (Part:Contributor)
古今書院   2011   
(アジア巨大都市, 谷口真人, 谷口智雅, 豊田知世編)
細野高啓 (Part:Contributor)
新泉社   2011   
台北の水環境(水環境と水環境問題)(アジアの都市と水環境, 水谷口真人, 金子慎治, 吉越昭久編)
細野高啓, 汪 中和 (Part:Contributor)
古今書院   2011   
鳥海山の地質と湧水 (鳥海山の水と暮らし~地域からのレポート, 秋道智彌編)
細野高啓 (Part:Contributor)
東北出版企画   2010   
Application of stable isotopes to watershed environmental diagnosis in agricultural irrigation areas. (Agricultural Irrigation Research Progress. Alonso, D., Iglesias, H.J. editors)
Hosono, T. (Part:Contributor)
Nova Science Publishers, Inc.   2008   
超背弧地域に産する比較的大規模な玄武岩類の成因:パタゴニア北部, ソムンクラ台地を例に
折橋裕二, 元木昭寿, Haller, M., CHRISTMASSY研究プロジェクト・火山班
月刊地球   2005   

Conference Activities & Talks

 
水前寺断層の出現に伴う地下水低下・湧水枯渇のメカニズムと地下水質変化からの追跡
細野高啓
サントリー熊本地下水みらいプロジェクト公開シンポジウム「巨大地震が熊本の地下水環境に与えた影響の科学的解明」   Apr 2019   
陸域における窒素ならびにシリカの挙動・輸送の多様性:アジア地域におけるいくつかの調査研究事例の紹介
細野高啓, トーフィク アハマッド, ゾーレ ネジャティジャロミ, 井手淨, 安元純, 岡村幸樹, 奥村梓
2018年度日本水文科学会   Oct 2018   
Tank model analysis of coseismic groundwater-level changes induced by 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake.
Kagabu, M., Ide, K., Hosono, T., Nakagawa, K., Shimada, J.
45th IAH Congress   Sep 2018   
Coseismic change of groundwater quality after the Kumamoto earthquake using long-term public observation data.
Masaki, Y., Shimada, J., Hosono, T.
45th IAH Congress   Sep 2018   
Changes in groundwater flow estimated by repeated measurements of subsurface temperature in the Kumamoto area, Japan: Effects of 2016 Kumamoto earthquake.
Miyakoshi, A., Taniguchi, M., Ide, K., Kagabu, M., Hosono, T., Shimada, J.
45th IAH Congress   Sep 2018   
Numerical modeling study on reproducing groundwater level change caused by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake.
Tawara, Y., Fukuoka, Y., Yoshida, T., Hosono, T., Rahman, S., Shimada, J.
45th IAH Congress   Sep 2018   
Scientific Research Project on the effect of 2016 Kumamoto earthquake to the local hydro-logical system including groundwater.
Shimada, J., Hosono, T., Nakagawa, K.
45th IAH Congress   Sep 2018   
Fully Coupled Surface and Subsurface Flow Simulation with Model Validation Using Stable Isotopes and Tracer of Kumamoto Region in Japan.
Sakiur Rahman, A.T.M., Hosono, T., Tawara, Y., Boateng, D., Shimada, J.
45th IAH Congress   Sep 2018   
琉球石灰岩地域の地下水
安元純, 野崎真司, 中屋眞司, 益田晴恵, 細野 高啓, 土岐知弘, 新城竜一
2018年度日本地球化学会年会   Sep 2018   
δ11B-δ7Li同位体指標を用いた地下水の起源推定と熊本地震の影響評価
杉本直人, 先山正祐, 細野 高啓, 谷水雅治
2018年度日本地球化学会年会   Sep 2018   
Deciphering downward movement of nitrate through volcanic unsaturated formation using high composition δ15N and δ18O tracers.
Boateng, D., Hosono, T., Okumura, A., Sakiur Rahman, A.T.M., Shimada, J.
45th IAH Congress   Sep 2018   
Coseismic groundwater level change after the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake
Hosono, T., Yamada, C., Shibata, T., Tawara, Y., Shimada, J.
45th IAH Congress   Sep 2018   
Seasonal variations of dissolved Ge:Si ratios in streams from the Aso caldera, Kyushu, Japan.
Gaspard, F., Opfergelt, S., Hartmann, J., Hosono, T., Delmelle, P.
Goldschmidt 2018   Aug 2018   
熊本地震による地下水位変化メカニズム
細野 高啓, 山田 千聡, 柴田 智郎, 田原 康博, 嶋田 純
日本地球惑星科学連合2018年大会   May 2018   
地下温度の繰返し測定による熊本地域の地下水流動変化の検討-2017・2018年測定値と過去データの比較
宮越 昭暢, 谷口 真人, 井手 淨, 奥村 梓, 利部 慎, 細野高啓, 嶋田 純
日本地球惑星科学連合2018年大会   May 2018   
熊本地震によって生じた地下水位変化の数理モデリング
田原 康博, 吉田 堯史, 福岡 庸一, 細野 高啓, 嶋田 純
日本地球惑星科学連合2018年大会   May 2018   
長期的地下水観測データを用いた熊本地震前後の水質変化の特徴
正木 結香子, 細野 高啓, 嶋田 純
日本地球惑星科学連合2018年大会   May 2018   
阿蘇北西部における熊本地震後の地下水湧出機構の解明
岡村 幸樹, 細野 高啓
日本地球惑星科学連合2018年大会   May 2018   
2016年熊本地震における地下水ラドン濃度変化
川端 訓代, 細野 高啓, 佐藤 努, 高橋 浩, 高橋正明, 井手 淨, 北村有迅, 小泉尚嗣, 深水 慶介
日本地球惑星科学連合2018年大会   May 2018   
熊本地震前後における湧水の湧出環境変化‐地下水年代トレーサーを用いた検討‐
井手 淨, 深水 慶介, 徳永 貴大, 利部 慎, 細野高啓, 嶋田 純
日本地球惑星科学連合2018年大会   May 2018   

Works

 
Groundwater environmental change due to 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake
Evaluation for trans-boundary atmospheric pollution in Japan archipelago using sediment core from mountain lakes and rain water network samples
Study for chemical weathering process in watershed surface environments evaluating its CO2 buffering availability
Elucidating transportation rates and behaviors of water and materials in unsaturated zone
Investigation for residence time and hydrochemical evolutions of spring and groundwater
Study for groundwater nitrate pollution using multi-isotope (H, B, C, N, O, S, Sr) and computer simulation
Biogeochemical study for groundwater arsenic pollution
Understanding the volume and distributions of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)
Assessment of river water quality using geochemical tools
Reconstruction of heavy metal pollution history in Asian megacities using costal sediment
Geochemical characterization of fluids from magmatic, geothermal, and deep crustal origins
Petrology
Mineral Resources
Cultural Property Science

Research Grants & Projects

 
近年の熊本地域の地下水硝酸態窒素汚染の実態把握
有明海・八代海の自然環境の再生・創生を目的とする総合的・実践的研究(分担)
Project Year: 2018 - 2020
熊本地震による地下水環境変化の全容解明
科学研究費補助金
Project Year: 2017 - 2020    Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
サントリー熊本地下水みらいプロジェクト「熊本県内の地下水流動メカニズムへの震災影響に関する調査研究」
サントリー寄付金
Project Year: 2017 - 2019    Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
地下水の流動状態把握および水質解析のための新たな金属元素同位体指標の確立
科学研究費補助金
Project Year: 2017 - 2019    Investigator(s): 谷水 雅治
国際共同研究推進費
国際先端科学技術研究機構
Project Year: 2018       Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
土壌コア水中の水素・酸素安定同位体解析による農業由来硝酸性窒素の地下への浸透状況等に関する調査研究業務
熊本県委託研究
Project Year: 2018       Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
流域化学風化作用における大気二酸化炭素吸収能力の定量評価に関するドイツ・ハンブルグ大学との国際共同研究
自然科学系国際共同拠点
Project Year: 2014 - 2017    Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
窒素-硫黄-炭素同位体システマティクスを用いた脱窒メカニズム解明法の確立
科学研究費補助金
Project Year: 2012 - 2017    Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
土壌コア水中の水素・酸素安定同位体解析による農業由来硝酸性窒素の地下への浸透状況等に関する調査研究業務
熊本県委託研究
Project Year: 2017       Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
熊本地震による地下水汚染の実態把握に関する緊急環境調査
科学技術振興機構J-Rapid
Project Year: 2016 - 2016    Investigator(s): 中田 晴彦
越境大気汚染モニタリング特定湖沼の提案
科学研究費補助金
Project Year: 2014 - 2016    Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
土壌コア水中の水素・酸素安定同位体解析による農業由来硝酸性窒素の地下への浸透状況等に関する調査研究業務
熊本県委託研究
Project Year: 2016       Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
生物多様性のある八代海沿岸海域環境の俯瞰型再生研究プロジェクト
文部科学省特別経費(大学の特性を生かした多様な学術研究機能の充実)(分担)
Project Year: 2011 - 2015
地域水循環機構を踏まえた地下水持続利用システムの構築
科学技術振興機構(戦略的創造研究推進事業チーム型研究(CREST))
Project Year: 2010 - 2015    Investigator(s): 嶋田 純
土壌コア水中の水素・酸素安定同位体分析による農業由来硝酸性窒素の地下への浸透状況等に関する調査研究業務
熊本県委託研究
Project Year: 2015       Investigator(s): 嶋田 純
科学研究費補助金(若手研究(A))の評価に関連して
平成22~24年度若手研究者支援制度インセンティブ
Project Year: 2010 - 2014    Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
地下水環境リーダー育成国際共同研究拠点
科学技術総合推進費(戦略的環境リーダー育成拠点形成)(分担)
Project Year: 2010 - 2014
アジアにおける自然と文化の重層的関係の歴史的解明
人間文化研究機構(連携研究) (協力者)
Project Year: 2010 - 2014
挑戦的萌芽研究の評価に関連して
平成26年度若手研究者支援制度インセンティブ
Project Year: 2014       Investigator(s): HOSONO Takahiro
土壌コア水中の環境同位体分析に基づく地下水汚染物質の浸透状況等に関する調査研究業務委託
熊本県委託研究
Project Year: 2014       Investigator(s): 嶋田 純

Social Contribution

 
「潮井水源水枯れ」関連
[Media coverage cooperation]  熊本日日新聞朝刊  17 May 2019
「熊本地震が地下水環境に与えた影響」関連
[Media coverage cooperation]  熊本日日新聞朝刊  14 Apr 2019
「熊本地震が地下水環境に与えた影響」関連
[Media coverage cooperation]  西日本新聞朝刊  10 Apr 2019
「熊本地震が地下水環境に与えた影響」関連
[Media coverage cooperation]  熊本日日新聞朝刊  7 Apr 2019
「Anthropogenic, trans-boundary lead pollution in Japanese lakes」
[Media coverage cooperation]  国際プレリリース  11 Sep 2016
「ヒューマン・ラボ 知的冒険の旅熊大ラジオ公開授業」
[TV or radio appearance]  FMクマモト  24 Nov 2014
研究室より一言「地下水環境問題を考える」
[Media coverage cooperation]  Nov 2012
「鳥海山から考える地域と暮らし」関連
[Media coverage cooperation]  朝日新聞  19 Nov 2008
「鳥海山から考える地域と暮らし」関連
[Media coverage cooperation]  朝日新聞  29 Oct 2008