論文

査読有り
2017年11月29日

Transmission of Airborne Bacteria across Built Environments and Its Measurement Standards: A Review.

Frontiers in microbiology
  • So Fujiyoshi
  • ,
  • Daisuke Tanaka
  • ,
  • Fumito Maruyama

担当区分
筆頭著者
記述言語
掲載種別
研究論文(学術雑誌)
DOI
10.3389/fmicb.2017.02336

Human health is influenced by various factors including microorganisms present in built environments where people spend most of their lives (approximately 90%). It is therefore necessary to monitor and control indoor airborne microbes for occupational safety and public health. Most studies concerning airborne microorganisms have focused on fungi, with scant data available concerning bacteria. The present review considers papers published from 2010 to 2017 approximately and factors affecting properties of indoor airborne bacteria (communities and concentration) with respect to temporal perspective and to multiscale interaction viewpoint. From a temporal perspective, bacterial concentrations in built environments change depending on numbers of human occupancy, while properties of bacterial communities tend to remain stable. Similarly, the bacteria found in social and community spaces such as offices, classrooms and hospitals are mainly associated with human occupancy. Other major sources of indoor airborne bacteria are (i) outdoor environments, and (ii) the building materials themselves. Indoor bacterial communities and concentrations are varied with varying interferences by outdoor environment. Airborne bacteria from the outdoor environment enter an indoor space through open doors and windows, while indoor bacteria are simultaneously released to the outer environment. Outdoor bacterial communities and their concentrations are also affected by geographical factors such as types of land use and their spatial distribution. The bacteria found in built environments therefore originate from any of the natural and man-made surroundings around humans. Therefore, to better understand the factors influencing bacterial concentrations and communities in built environments, we should study all the environments that humans contact as a single ecosystem. In this review, we propose the establishment of a standard procedure for assessing properties of indoor airborne bacteria using four factors: temperature, relative humidity (RH), air exchange rate, and occupant density, as a minimum requirement. We also summarize the relevant legislation by country. Choice of factors to measure remain controversial are discussed.

リンク情報
DOI
https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02336
PubMed
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238327
PubMed Central
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712571
URL
https://europepmc.org/articles/PMC5712571

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