- AMER PHYSICAL SOC
We report our combined experimental and theoretical study of magnetoelectric properties of an antiferromagnet Sr (TiO)Cu-4(PO4)(4) in comparison with the isostructurals B a(TiO)Cu-4(PO4)(4) and Pb (TiO )Cu-4(PO4)(4). The family of compounds commonly possesses a low-symmetric magnetic unit called the square cupola, which is a source of magnetoelectric responses associated with the magnetic multipoles activated under simultaneous breaking of spatial inversion and time-reversal symmetries. Measuring the full magnetization curves and the magnetic-field profiles of the dielectric constant for Sr(TiO)Cu-4(PO4)(4) and comparing them with the theoretical analyses by the cluster mean-field theory, we find that the effective S = 1/2 spin model, which was used for the previous studies for Ba(TiO)Cu-4(PO4)(4) and Pb(TiO)Cu-4(PO4)(4), well explains the experimental results by tuning the model parameters. Furthermore, elaborating on the phase diagram of the model, we find that the square cupolas could host a variety of magnetic multipoles, i.e., monopole, toroidal moment, and quadrupole tensor, depending on the parameters that could be modulated by deformations of the magnetic square cupolas. Our results not only provide a microscopic understanding of the series of the square cupola compounds, but also stimulate further exploration of the magnetoelectric behavior arising from cluster multipoles harboring in low-symmetric magnetic units.
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