- NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Although aberrations in the number and function of glutamate AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors are thought to underlie neuropsychiatric disorders, no methods are currently available for visualizing AMPA receptors in the living human brain. Here we developed a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for AMPA receptors. A derivative of 4-[2-(phenylsulfonylamino)ethylthio]-2,6-difluoro-phenoxyacetamide radiolabeled with C-11 ([C-11]K-2) showed specific binding to AMPA receptors. Our clinical trial with healthy human participants confirmed reversible binding of [C-11]K-2 in the brain according to Logan graphical analysis (; study design: non-randomized, single arm; primary outcome: dynamics and distribution volumes of [C-11]K-2 in the brain; secondary outcome: adverse events of [C-11]K-2 during the 4-10 d following dosing; this trial met prespecified endpoints). In an exploratory clinical study including patients with epilepsy, we detected increased [C-11]K-2 uptake in the epileptogenic focus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, which was closely correlated with the local AMPA receptor protein distribution in surgical specimens from the same individuals (; study design: non-randomized, single arm; primary outcome: correlation between [C-11]K-2 uptake measured with PET before surgery and AMPA receptor protein density examined by biochemical study after surgery; secondary outcome: adverse events during the 7 d following PET scan; this trial met prespecified endpoints). Thus, [C-11]K-2 is a potent PET tracer for AMPA receptors, potentially providing a tool to examine the involvement of AMPA receptors in neuropsychiatric disorders.
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- DOI : 10.1038/s41591-019-0723-9
- ISSN : 1078-8956
- eISSN : 1546-170X
- Web of Science ID : WOS:000510551600001