- PHYSICAL SOC JAPAN
. We discuss the excitation spectra around the Dirac node on a surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. By using the diagrammatic expansion, we show that the coupling of an electron with the gauge field in the presence of impurity scatterings opens a gap around the Dirac node. The results are consistent with a recent experimental finding by Sato et al. [Nat. Phys. 7 (2011) 840]. We also discuss the consistency between the present results and the bulk-boundary correspondence of the topological insulator in the presence of time reversal symmetry. The conclusion can be applied to any two-dimensional massless fermions.
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