論文

査読有り
2017年

戦後イタリアにおける建物類型学の再定義:- 1940年代サヴェリオ・ムラトーリの初期論考を通して -

日本建築学会計画系論文集
  • 福村 任生

82
738
開始ページ
2143
終了ページ
2150
記述言語
日本語
掲載種別
DOI
10.3130/aija.82.2143
出版者・発行元
日本建築学会

 In general, the key concepts of Muratori's research method "tipologia edilizia" and "tessuto urbano" are known through "<i>Studi per una operante storia di Venezia</i>" (1959), but the theoretical formation of Muratori dates back to 1940's. Initial theoretical articles written from 1943 to 1946, before and after the end of the World War II, are considered to be important. First of all, these arguments constitute the basis of the subsequent theoretical development of Muratori. And secondly the thought of Muratori can be interpreted as a valuable record of the unique point of view of the Italian architects located around the periphery of the "Modern Architectural Movement" at the turning point of the 20th century.<br> Saverio Muratori(1910-1973) graduated from the "Scuola superiore di Architettura di Roma" in 1933 and was able to fully absorb the idea of Gustavo Giovannoni (1873-1947), an "architect who integrates" engineering and art. In particular, the lecture which played an important role for his formation was "I caratteri degli edifici" by Enrico Calandra (1877-1946). According to Calandra, "expression" by architects has been tied to the era and the land in which the architect is involved, and it appears together with maturity of the economy, society and culture of a certain civilization. Such a way of thinking of Calandra was pierced by the historical criticism spirit. He points out the dangers of abstract building typology that is manualized from such standpoints(Chapter 2).<br> The first theoretical work of Muratori was to discuss critically the historical evolution of the mondern architecture(S. Muratori, <i>Storia e critica dell'architettura contemporanea</i>, 1944.). It was almost the first attempt to describe the history of modern architecture as a synthesis in Italy, where they had took a distance from the European modern movement. In that context, the discourse of Muratori was strongly influenced by Croce's neoidealistic philosophy, reigning as an intellectual authority of Italy in the first half of the 20th century. Muratori thought that what Italy aims for in the upcoming "Architecture as an organism" is a recovery of human values and scales expelled by "functionalism" and "rationalism", and very interestingly he considered that some architectural works of Le Corbusier had proved the fundamental way to realize the modern building as a constructed but vital entity that belongs to the universe with the humanity sense. That is exactly the "constructed organism" that Muratori thought(Chapter 3).<br> The important influence that we can observe in the texts of Muratori after 1945 was the introduction of the concept of the "Space", provably flowed in by the work of S. Giedion's "Space, time architecture". By this Muratori succeeded in grasping the entity of architecture as "structural complexity" and "spatial complexity". In this point of view the distinction between "architecture" and "building" begins to be absurd because both of them is the same spatial-structural organization for the human beings. The definition of "type" of architecture/building was derived from this stage of his evolution of the critical thinking(Chapter 4).<br> In conclusion, the central issue of Saverio Muratori's primary thesis written around the end of World War II was to critically reconstruct the traditional architectural concepts. The central concept of his thoughts was the "constructed organism", which has been included in the idea of traditional Italian cities. And the concept of "type" that can be considered as a conclusion of the discourse is surely influenced by the abstract "space" concept in modern architectural theories of foreign countries, and in that sense Muratori's thought takes a step beyond the position of the pre-war Italian architectural theory. With this new vision he could start an exploration of the City-Architectural studies.

リンク情報
DOI
https://doi.org/10.3130/aija.82.2143
CiNii Articles
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/130006026504
CiNii Resolver ID
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/nrid/9000365533962

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