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abbriviations on the 500 medical papers of the kartagener syndrome

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129, 129s6/svevtac;    
1c, intermediate chain;    
3d,    three-dimensional
3v, third ventricle.   
a, anterior;    
a, aorta;    
aa antibiotic-antimycotic solution   
aa: african american;    
aaa    atpase-activator
aaa_7, p-loop containing dynein motor region d3;    
aaa_8, p-loop containing dynein motor region d4;    
aaa, atpases associated diverse cellular a domains;    
aaa.., hydrolytic atp-binding site of dynein motor region d1;    
abpa = allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis;    
abpa, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis;    
abr, auditory brain stem response;    
acbt, active cycle of breathing techniqi   
aciii    adenylyl cyclase iii
ackd: acquired cystic kidney disease;    
ad, alzheimer disease; mt, microtubule; map,   
ados-g: autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic;    
adpkd    autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
adpkd: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ap: anterior-posterior;   
ajcc/uicc: american joint committee on cancer/union for international  cancer control;    
ak, adenylate kinase;    
ak7, adenylate kinase 7;    
al, artificial insemination;    
alb, albumin;    
alms    alstrom syndrome
alpl' alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney (also known as tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase);    
am = intravenous amikacin;    
amhi2’ anti-mullerian hormone type 2 receptor.   
anova, analysis of variance;    
ap    anterior-pos terior
apvr = anomalous pulmonary venous return;    
arc: adenomatosis polyposis;    
arpkd, autosomal recessive polycystic disease;    
arpkd: autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease;   
arrp, autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa;    
asd = atrial septal defect   
asd, atrial septa defect; av, atrioventricular;   
aso: allele-specific oligonucleotide;    
atd    asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy
ats/ers, american thoracic society/european respirator)/ society;    
auc: area under cun/e;    
autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa;    
av = atrioventricular   
avsd: atrioventricular septal defect;   
az = azithromycin;    
aza, azathioprine;    
b. bgk.   
b6, c57bl/6j;    
bal: bronchoalveolar lavage;    
balf    bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
balt, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue;    
bb: basal body;    
bbs, bardet-biedl syndrome;    
bd: bile duct;    
begm bronchial epithelial cell growth medium   
bgh: big giant head,    
bgn    biglycan
bh: breath hold;    
bh2, braunvieh haplotype 2;    
bicc: biccaudal c;   
bmi, body mass index;    
bmscs    bone marrow derived stromal cells
bplc balb/c polycystic kidneys; cpk: congenital polycystic kidneys;   
br, bronchiectasis;    
bs/bs, blind-sterile;    
bsa, bovine serum albumin;    
bun, blood urea nitrogen;    
bv, braunvieh;    
bx, bronchiectasis;   
c.s. current study,    
ca = central apparatus;    
cb, chronic bronchitis;    
cbf, ciliary beat frequency;    
cbf, ciliary beating frequency;    
cc, central complex;   
ccdc88c    coiled coil domain containing 88c
ccsp: clara cell secretoiy protein;    
cdo, ciliary dysfunction-only;   
cdo: ciliary dysfunction only;    
ce = cefoxitin;    
ce, centriole;    
ced    cranioectodennal dysplasia
cep.., coiled-coil region of centrosome protein; mi-4, tau/map 1-4.   
cf = cystic fibrosis;    
cfap221    ciliary and flagellar associated protein 221
cfap221, ciliary and flagellar protein 221;    
cfap54, ciliary and flagellar protein 54;    
cftr    cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator
cftr = cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator   
cftr = cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator;    
cgh: comparative genomic hybridisation.   
cha common hepatic artery:    
chd    congenital heart disease
chd, congenital heart disease;    
ci = ciprofloxacin;    
ci, circular;    
ciss - constructive interference in steady state   
cki: casein kinase i;    
cl = confidence interval;    
cl, ca++ ionophore;    
cla = clarithromycin;    
clo = clofazimine;    
cm, centimorgans.   
cns    central nervous system
coach    cerebellar vermis hypo-/aplasia, oligophrenia, congenital ataxia, ocular coloboma, and hepatic fibrosis
coll2al    type xii collagen
cons consanguinity,     
consanguinity; segr: segregation;    
copd: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;   
cors, cerebello-oculo-renal syndrome;   
cp = central pair;    
cp, central microtubular pair;    
cp: central pair tubuli;    
cpcl    central pair complex 1
cpma, central pair microtubule apparatus   
cr, creatinine;    
crem, cyclic amp responsive-element modulator;    
crs    chronic rhinosinusitis
cs, chord-containing proteins andsgt1;    
csf, cerebrospinal fluid;    
csi: complete situs inversus;    
ct = computed tomography;   
cvm = cardiovascular malformation;    
cxr, chest x-ray;    
d-tga = dextro-transposition of the great arteries;   
da, ductus arteriosus;    
db, decibel;   
dc, docking complex;    
dc: dextrocardia;    
del-1, developmental endothelial locus-1;    
dfi: dna fragmentation index;    
dhc_n1, dynein heavy chain, n-terminal region 1;    
dhc_n2, dynein heavy chain; n-terminal region 1,   
dhc, dynein heavy chain;    
disci    disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1
dlco, diffusing lung capacity of carbon monoxide.   
dm    diabetes mellitus
dna    deoxyribonucleic acid
dnah5: dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 5;    
dnahcs, dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 5;    
dnohl 1: dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11;    
dorv, double outlet right ventricle;    
dpcd    deleted in primary ciliary dyskinesia
dpoae, distortion product otoacoustic emission;    
drc: dynein regulatory complex;   
ds, down syndrome;    
dta, dorsal area of the thoracic aorta:    
dv: dorso-ventral;    
dvl: disheveled;    
dynein_heavy pfama, dynein heavy chain and region d6 of dynein motor;    
e, embryonic day;    
ebss, earle’s balanced salt solution;    
ecg: electrocardiogram;    
eclipse: evaluation of copd longitudinally to identify predictive surrogate endpoints;    
edc, l-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide;    
efic, episcopic fluorescence image capture;    
eif2ak4, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 4;    
em = electron microscopy;    
ent, ear nose and throat;    
enu    n-etliyl-n-nitrosourea
er =ertapenem;    
er: exhalation against resistance;    
erg, electroretinogram;   
es, embryonic stem;    
escs    embryonic stem cells
ess    endoscopic sinus surgery
ess = epworth sleepiness scale;    
et = ethambutol;    
eve    ellis-van creveld syndrome protein homolog
ex = exon;    
f, female;    
fc: first cousins;    
fef25-75: forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of fvc;    
fef95-75 = forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase;   
fev, forced expiratory volume in 1 second   
fev1 = forced expiratory volume in one second;   
fevi-forced expiratory volume at 1st second;   
fevy forced expiratory volume in 1 second;    
fgfrl    fibroblast growth factor receptor-1
fn: false negatives;    
fp: false positives;   
fpc    fibrocystin/polyductin
fpm: lateral plate mesoderm;    
fr: leftright;    
frc: functional residual capacity;    
front biosci (landmark ed). author manuscript; available in pmc 2015 march 19.   
fs,    fibrous sheath
fsh: follicle stimulating hormone;    
fv, fleckvieh;    
fvc = forced vital capacity;    
galnt11: n-acetylgalactosamine-type o-glycosylation enzyme;    
gap: guanine activating proteins;    
gcl, ganglion cell layer;    
gda: gastroduodenal artery;    
gdmcc    genetic disorders of mucociliary clearance consortium
gef: guanine exchange factors;   
gerd: gastroesophageal reflux disease,    
gfap     glial fibrillary acidic protein
gfp: green fluorescent protein;    
gfr, glomerular filtration rate;    
gist: gastrointestinal stromal tumor;   
gmap210    golgi microtubule associated protein 210
gold: global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease;    
gp, general practitioner (primary care practioner)   
gre - gradient echo sequence   
grp: gastrocoel roof plate;    
gsk3|3: glycogen synthase 3b;    
gtpase    guanosine triphosphate hydrolases
gwas: genome-wide association study;   
h = hours;    
h, heart;    
h&e, hematoxylin and eosin;    
hads = hospital anxiety and depression scale;    
hads-a = hospital anxiety and depression scaleanxiety;    
hads-d = hospital anxiety and depression scale-depression;    
haste - half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin   
haste: half-fourier single-shot turbo spinecho;    
hc, he chains,    
hc, heavy chain;    
hepes, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-l-piperazineethanesulfonic acid.   
hfh-4, hepatocyte nuclear factor/forkhead homologue 4;    
hh    hedgehog
hh: hedgehog-signaling;    
hl, hearing level.   
hlhs = hypoplastic left heart syndrome;    
hrct = high-resolution computed tomography;    
hrgp    human red/green pigment gene promoter
hrp, horseradish peroxidase;    
hs, highly significant;    
hsp47    heat shock protein 47 kda
hsvm: high speed video microscopy;    
hu: hounsfield units;    
hvma: high speed video microscopy analysis;    
hvma: high-speed video microscopy;     
hz = hertz;    
i = intermediate;    
i ft, intraflagella transport;    
i msi, intracytoplasmic injection of morphologically selected spermatozoa.   
i pda: inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery;    
ibal    ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1
ibd    identical-by-descent
ic, dynein ic;    
ic, intermediate chains,    
icm, i c mcmanus (author)   
ics, immotile-cilia syndrome;    
icsi, intracytoplasmic sperm injection;    
id    intellectual disabilities
ida = inner dynein arm;    
if    immunofluorescence testing
if = immunofluorescence;    
ifn-y = interferon gamma;    
ifny: interferon gamma;    
ift    intraflagellar transport
ift, intraflagellar transport;    
ift88: intraflagellar transport 88;   
iga, immunoglobulin a;    
igg, immunoglobulin g.   
ihh    indian hedgehog
il-13r1    interleukin-13 receptor al
il: interleukin;   
il12 = interleukin 12;    
ilc = isolated levocardia   
ild: interstitial lung disease    
im = imipenem;    
ima inferior mesenteric artery.   
imaging; nl: nexin link;    
ims, immunosuppressants; tac, tacrolimus;    
in, infertility;    
inesia; rs = radial spoke head;    
inl, inner nuclear layer;    
int = intron;    
inv: inversion of embiyonic turning;    
iqr = interquartile range; or = odds ratios;   
ird, left-right dynein.   
is, inner segment;    
isgpf: international study group of pancreatic fistula;    
iv, inversus viscerum;    
iv: situs inversus viscerum;    
ivc = inferior vena cava   
ivc, inferior vena cava;    
ivf-icsi: in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection;    
ivf-icsi: in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection;    
ivf: in vitro fertilization with conventional insemination;    
ivig    intravenous immunoglobulin
jatd    jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy
jatd, jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy;   
jbts, joubert syndrome;    
jck: juvenile cystic kidneys;    
js, joubert syndrome;    
jsrd    joubert syndrome-related disorders
jsrd    jbts-related disorder
kif3a: kinesin family member 3a;    
kif3b: kinesin family member 3b;    
ks: kartagener syndrome.   
ks: kartagener's syndrome;    
l-r, left-right   
l-tga = levo-transposition of the great arteries;    
l, left;    
l, lung;    
l1cam    li cell adhesion molecule
lad: left anterior descending artery;    
lc, dynein light chain;    
lc, light chain.   
lc, light chains;   
lca    leber congenital amaurosis
lca left colic artery:    
lca, leber congenital amaurosis;    
lci: lung clearance index;    
ld, linkage disequilibrium;   
le = levofloxacin;    
lecs: laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery;    
lfa-1, lymphocyte functionassociated antigen-1;    
lft- lung function test;   
li = linezolid;    
lima: left internal mammary artery;    
lll, left lower lobe;    
lm: light microscopy;    
lrd: feft/right-dynein;    
lrr, leucine-rich repeat;    
lrrct, leucine-rich repeat c-terminal;    
lsvc, left superior vena cava;    
lv, lateral ventricle;    
lv, left ventricle;    
lvoto = left ventricular outflow tract obstruction;    
m = maternal;    
m, male;    
mabs =mycobacterium abscessus sensu stricto-,    
maf, minor allele frequency;    
magnetic resonance imaging;    
map2    microtubule-associated protein 2
mavi = mycobacterium avium\    
max = maximum;   
mbp    myelin basic protein
mcs: microscopy, culture and sensitivity;    
md-ct: multidetector-row ct;    
me = meropenem;    
media; rs, rhinosinusitis;    
mefs    mouse embryo fibroblasts
mgs    meckel-gruber syndrome
mhcii, major histocompatibility complex class ii;    
microtubule-associated protein;    
mill 054    the 1054th new mutation described at the jackson labs
mim = mendelian inheritance in man;    
mint = mycobacterium intracellulare-,    
mip     maximum intensity projection
mks    meckel-gmber syndrome
mks, meckel syndrome;   
ml, meckel-like syndrome.   
mla, morphological left atrium;    
mle    maximum likelihood estimate
mlpa: multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification;   
mlv, morphological left ventricle;    
mmc: multiple motile cilia;    
mmas = mycobacterium abscessus subspecies massiliense-,    
mmplo    matrix metalloproteinase-10
mo = moxifloxacin;    
moet, eustachian tube medial osseous segment;    
mpap, mean pulmonary arterial pressure;    
mpdn, methylprednisolone.   
mpdz    multiple pdz domain protein
mra, morphological right atrium;    
mrc = medical research council scale;     
mri: magnetic resonance imaging;    
mrl, middle right lobe;    
mrv, morphological right ventricle;    
ms, mycophenolate sodium;    
mss    mainzer- s aldino- s yndrome
mt, microtubule-binding stalk of dynein motor;    
mt, microtubule.   
mtd    microtubule disorganization
mtd = microtubular disorganization   
mtoc = microtubule organizing center;   
mts    molar tooth sign
mts    microtubules
mut, mutated dnal1 protein;     
mut. = mutation;     
n-drc = nexin-dynein regulatory complex;    
n, neol:    
n, no;    
n, normal.   
n.a. = not available;    
n.d. = not determined;   
n.d. not done,    
n2 mbw, nitrogen multiple breath washout;    
na = not available;    
ncg, national commissioning grou   
nd: no data;   
ndk, nucleoside diphosphate kinase;    
ne, nasal epithelium;    
nek1    never-in-mitosis kinase 1
neo, neomycin;    
nft, neurofibrillary tangle;    
ngf, nerve growth factor;    
ngs, next-generation seguencing;    
nhw: non-hispanic white;    
nl, nanoliter;    
nl, nexin links;    
nmda    n-methyl-d-aspartate
nno: nasal nitric oxide;    
no = nasal nitric oxide;   
no, nitric oxide;   
nos: nitric oxide synthase;    
np, not performed;    
npv = negative predicted value;    
nr, not relevant;    
nr2b    nmda receptor subunit 2b
nrd, neonatal respiratory distress or hypoxemia;    
nrd, neonatal respiratory distress;   
nrds-neonatal respiratory distress syndrome;    
ns = not significant;   
ns, nonsignificant;    
nt, not tested.   
ntm    non-tuberculosis mycobacterium
nyd-sp28, nyd-sp28 sperm tail;    
nyd..,nyd-sp28_assoc sperm tail c-terminal domain;    
oa    osteoarthritis
oa, ocular albinism;    
oat: oligoasthenoteratospermia;   
oc, oculocutaneous albinism;    
oct, optical coherence tomography;    
od, right eye;    
oda = outer dynein arm;    
oda outer dynein arm defects,    
oda-dc, outer dynein arm-docking complex;    
odas    outer dynein arms
oes    old english sheepdog
ofd1    oral-facial-digital syndrome 1
ofd1, orofaciodigital syndrome type i;    
ofd6    orofacial digital syndrome type vi
om, chronic or recurrent otitis media;    
om: obtuse marginal branch;    
ome, otitis media with effusion;     
on, optic nerve head;    
onl, outer nuclear layer.    
opl, outer plexifonn layer;    
optc, eustachian tube opening within tympanic cavity;    
or, odds ratio;    
orpk. oak ridge polycystic kidney;    
os ostium secundum,    
os, left eye.   
os, outer segment.    
osm-3    osmotic avoidance abnormal protein 3
otsc, over-the-scope clipping:    
p = paternal.    
p wave: atrial depolarization;    
p, posterior;    
p. aeruginosa, pseudomonas aeruginosa;   
pa = pseudomonas aeruginosa;    
pa: self-reported physical activity;    
pa02, partial pressure of oxygen.   
pah: pulmonary arterial hypertension;    
par cons: parental   
pbb    protracted bacterial bronchitis
pbs, phosphate-buffered saline;    
pc2    polycystin-2
pcd    primary ciliary dyskinesia
pcdp1, primary ciliary dyskinesia protein 1;    
pcdpl    primary ciliary dyskinesia protein 1
pch, pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis;    
pcm: pericentriolar material;    
pcp: planar cell polarity;   
pcr    polymerase chain reaction
pcwp, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure;    
pcy: polycystic kidneys;   
pd    proximal-distal
pda: posterior descending artery;    
pdgf-a    platelet-derived growth factor a
pdgf, platelet derived growth factor;    
pdm, persistent descending mesocolon:    
pdn, prednisone;    
peep: positive end-expiratory pressure;   
pep, positive expiratory pressi   
percbx: percutaneous testis biopsy;    
pet    pressure equalization tubes
pet, 18f2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography:    
pfo patent foramen ovale,   
pft: pulmonary function test;    
pfts: pulmonary function tests;    
ph a: proper hepatic artery;   
phf, paired helical filament;    
pitx2: paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2;    
pkd, polycystic kidney disease;   
pkd2: polycystic kidney disease gene 2;    
pkd7: polycystic kidney disease gene 1;    
pmn, polymorphonuclear leukocyte;    
pnc: posterior notched;    
ppb, parts per billion.   
ppv = positive predicted value.   
pred = predicted values;    
ps = pulmonary stenosis;    
psqi = pittsburgh sleep quality index.   
pta, pure tone audiometry;   
ptchl    patched 1
pv: portal vein;   
pvod, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease;    
qk/qk, quakingsterile.   
qol-pcd, quality of life - primary ciliary dyskinesia;    
qol: quality of life;   
qrt-pcr    quantitative real-time pcr
qrt-pcr, quantitative reverse transcription pcr;    
r = resistant;    
r, right;    
race, rapid amplification of cdna ends;    
rag: ras-related c3 botulinum substrate 1;    
rct, randomized controlled trial;    
rds-respiratory distress syndrome,   
rflp, restriction fragment length polymorphism;   
rib = rifabutin;    
rim = rifampin;    
rima: right internal mammary artery;    
rna    ribonucleic acid
rom    recurrent otitis media
ros: reactive oxygen species;   
rosi, round spermatid injection;   
rp, retinitis pigmentosa.   
rs, radial spoke;    
rs, rhinosinusitis;    
rsph: radial spoke head;   
rsvc, right superior vena cava.   
rt, reverse transcription.   
rv, residual volume;     
rv, right ventricle.   
rv. ftcorv;    
s = susceptible;    
s, significant;    
s, stomach;    
s. spei:    
sa    situs ambiguus
sc: second cousins;    
scsa: sperm chromatin structure assay.   
sd, standard deviation.   
sd: second degree;    
sdq: strengths and difficulties questionnaire.   
sem, scanning electron microscopy/microscope;    
sfrp5    secreted frizzled-related sequence protein 5
sgrq: saint george's respiratory questionnaire;   
shh:sonic hedgehog.   
si = situs inversus.   
si totalis situs inversus including dextrocardia   
si, situs inversus totalis   
sit: situs inversus totalis;    
sls, senior-loken syndrome;    
sma: superior mesenteric artery;    
smo    smoothened
smt: submucosal tumor;   
smv: superior mesenteric vein.   
snp, single nucleotide polymorphism;   
som, serous otitis   
sp, spleen.   
spag: sperm associated antigen;    
spef2: sperm flagellar protein 2;    
splice/trunc = splice mutation leading to insertion of intron 1 sequences in the message,   
spss-pc: statistical software package;   
srp    short rib polydactyly syndromes
ss, situs solitus   
st, stiff;    
stat6    signal transducer and activator of transcription-6
stir - short tau inversion recovery (mr sequence with ciss - constructive interference in steady state (high fat suppression) resolution t2 weighted mr sequence)   
stk36    serine/threonine kinase 36
sufu    suppressor of fused
suvmax, maximum standardised uptake value.   
svc, superior vena cava;    
svg: saphenous vein graft.   
sw, simon whalley (author)   
t wave: ventricular repolarization.   
t1 se - t1 weighted spin echo (mr sequence)   
tb: tidal breathing;    
tc: third cousins;    
tem, transmission electron microscopy;   
tga, transposition of great arteries;    
tgct, testicular germ cell tumour.   
tgf: transforming growth factor;    
thm1    tetratricopeptide repeat containing hedgehog modulator 1
ti = tigecycline.   
tlc, total lung capacity   
tm, tympanic membrane.   
tmj    temporoman-dibular j oint
tn: true negatives;    
tnf: tumor necrosis factor.   
tof, tetralogy of fallot;    
tp: true positives;    
traf3    tnfr-associated factor-3
trip11    thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 11
true-fisp/trufi: true-fast imaging with steady precession;    
ttn    transient tachypnea of the newborn
tunel, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dutp nick end labeling;    
tx = transposition.   
tz: transition zone.   
uae    united arab emirates
uicc, union for international cancer control:    
unc = university of north carolina.   
upd, uniparental disomy;    
upd, uniparental disomy;    
us    ltsher syndrome
uv, unclassified variant;    
uvb: ultraviolet b.   
va, ventriculoarterial;   
vang!: van gogh like;   
vc: velum closure.   
vep, visually eve potential   
vi, virtually immotile;    
vibe: volume-interpolated breath-hold exampage 7 of 9   
vsd, ventricular septal defect.   
wad    weyers acrofacial dysostosi
wnt: wingless-type mm7v integration site family.   
wt = wild type.   
wt, normal dnal1 protein.   
wt, wild type.   
x. a7?oi;    
xlrp, x linked retinitis pigmentosa   
y, yes;    
yr = year.   
zeo, zeocin.   
zp3 zona pellucida3;    
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