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COUNTER175989From 2011/5/25

HAZOP diary(安全分析日誌)

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2019/03/21

HAZOP

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Practical experience with the application of HazOp to a software intensive system

Tor Stålhane, PhD and Kari Juul Wedde. M Sc. SINTEF Telecom and Informatics


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2019/02/28

安全工学

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小川清, 渡部謹二, 斉藤直希, 堀武司, 奥田篤, 水口大知, 吉岡律夫, 渡辺登
安全工学シンポジウム   2008 347-350   2008年7月

安全に貢献するソフトウェア関連国際規格
水野智仁, 森川聡久, 小川清, 斉藤直希, 渡部謹二, 堀武司
安全工学シンポジウム   2009 324-327   2009年7月

堀武司, 小川清, 斉藤直希, 渡部謹二, 森川聡久, 服部博行
安全工学シンポジウム   2009 86-87   2009年7月

斉藤直希, 堀武司, 小川清
安全工学シンポジウム講演予稿集   2009 316-319   2009年7月

HAZOP手法の展開
小川清, 斉藤直希, 渡部謹二
安全工学シンポジウム   2010 374-377   2010年7月

竹内舞, 水野智仁, 森川聡久, 小川清, 斉藤直希, 渡部謹二
安全工学シンポジウム   2010 378-381   2010年7月

安全関連系の設計のためのHAZOPの展開
小川清, 斉藤直希, 渡部謹二
安全工学シンポジウム   2011 174-175   2011年7月

より効率的なHAZOP-TRIZを利用した設計変更への対応,小川清,  安全工学シンポ, 2012   

HAZOPと関連手法の展開,小川清, 名古屋市工業研究所,安全工学シンポジウム,  2013 
 
ソフトウェアFMEA を体系的に実施する出発点としてのMISRA-C,
中野泰伸,原浩晃,森川聡久,小川清,安全工学シンポジウム2014

作業診断の国際規格適合とアセッサの訓練, 小川清,安全工学シンポジウム2014

安全(safety)と安心(security)に関するC言語コーディングッヒョウ順の取り組み MISRA-C, CERT C and TS17961,  日本学術会議安全工学シンポジウム ,小川明秀, 小川 清 2015年 7月 2日

安全分析において、HAZOP,FMEA,FTAの組み合わせによる リスクアセスメントの進め方の検討  日本学術会議安全工学シンポジウム ,小川明秀, 小川 清 2015年 7月 2日

 MISRA-­‐C++とCERT C++ による安全・安心システムへの貢献 STARC RTL設計スタイルガイドとHAZOPを 使って, 小川清, 安全工学シンポジウム, 日本学術会議, 2016

b安全分析におけるHAZOP-TRIZ連携の試み, 小川明秀, 小川 清, 安全工学シンポジウム,  2016年

Raspberry PIの安全と安心対策, 小川清,斉藤直希, 安全工学シンポジウム, 2017年7月5日

TRIZ-HAZOP連携による交通安全分析 小川明秀, 小川清,安全工学シンポジウム, 2017年7月5日
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2019/01/13

踏切の安全分析

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踏切の安全分析

踏切の安全分析において、安全分析の専門家という方の中で、納得のいかない説明をされていることがある。

その一つが、「踏切が機能安全で、立体交差が本質安全だ」とうい主張である。

それに対して、「立体交差が機能安全で、交差しないのが本質安全だ」という主張がある。交差しなければ安全であるから、交差しないのが本質安全だというのが論理的には妥当だという主張である。

社会的には、すべて交差しないことは不可能かもしれないため、社会的な解決方法が、立体交差を道路法で規定している。

道路法で、「当該道路の交通量又は当該鉄道の運転回数が少ない場合、地形上やむを得ない場合その他政令で定める場合を除くほか、当該交差の方式は、立体交差としなければならない。」(第三十一条)

1. 道路法

「(道路と鉄道との交差)
第三十一条 道路と独立行政法人鉄道建設・運輸施設整備支援機構、独立行政法人日本高速道路保有・債務返済機構又は鉄道事業者の鉄道とが相互に交差する場合(当該道路が国道であり、かつ、国土交通大臣が自らその新設又は改築を行う場合を除く。)においては、当該道路の道路管理者は、独立行政法人鉄道建設・運輸施設整備支援機構、独立行政法人日本高速道路保有・債務返済機構又は当該鉄道事業者と当該交差の方式、その構造、工事の施行方法及び費用負担について、あらかじめ協議し、これを成立させなければならない。ただし、当該道路の交通量又は当該鉄道の運転回数が少ない場合、地形上やむを得ない場合その他政令で定める場合を除くほか、当該交差の方式は、立体交差としなければならない。
2 前項の規定により協議する場合において、国土交通大臣以外の道路管理者と独立行政法人鉄道建設・運輸施設整備支援機構、独立行政法人日本高速道路保有・債務返済機構又は鉄道事業者との協議が成立しないときは、当該道路の道路管理者、独立行政法人鉄道建設・運輸施設整備支援機構、独立行政法人日本高速道路保有・債務返済機構又は鉄道事業者は、国土交通大臣に裁定を申請することができる。
3 第七条第六項の規定は、前項の場合について準用する。この場合において、第七条第六項中「関係都道府県知事の意見」とあるのは「当該道路の道路管理者、独立行政法人鉄道建設・運輸施設整備支援機構、独立行政法人日本高速道路保有・債務返済機構又は当該鉄道事業者の意見」と、「関係都道府県知事は、」とあるのは「当該道路の道路管理者は、」と、「当該都道府県の議会の議決を経なければならない。」とあるのは「指定区間外の国道にあつては道路管理者である都道府県の議会に諮問し、その他の道路にあつては当該道路管理者である地方公共団体の議会の議決を経なければならない。」と読み替えるものとする。
4 第二項の規定により国土交通大臣が裁定をした場合においては、第一項の規定の適用については、当該道路の道路管理者と独立行政法人鉄道建設・運輸施設整備支援機構、独立行政法人日本高速道路保有・債務返済機構又は当該鉄道事業者との協議が成立したものとみなす。
5 国道と独立行政法人鉄道建設・運輸施設整備支援機構、独立行政法人日本高速道路保有・債務返済機構又は鉄道事業者の鉄道とが相互に交差する場合において、国土交通大臣が自らその新設又は改築を行うときは、国土交通大臣は、あらかじめ、独立行政法人鉄道建設・運輸施設整備支援機構、独立行政法人日本高速道路保有・債務返済機構又は当該鉄道事業者の意見を聴いて、当該交差の方式、その構造、工事の施行方法及び費用負担を決定するものとする。ただし、国土交通大臣の決定前に、国土交通大臣とこれらの者との間にこれらの事項について協議が成立したときは、この限りでない。
6 前項に規定する場合において、当該国道の交通量又は当該鉄道の運転回数が少ない場合、地形上やむを得ない場合その他政令で定める場合を除いた交差の方式は、立体交差としなければならない。
7 国土交通大臣は、第五項本文の規定による決定をするときは、鉄道の整備及び安全の確保並びに鉄道事業の発達、改善及び調整に特に配慮しなければならない。」

「(兼用工作物の管理)
第二十条 道路と堤防、護岸、ダム、鉄道又は軌道用の橋、踏切道(道路と独立行政法人鉄道建設・運輸施設整備支援機構、独立行政法人日本高速道路保有・債務返済機構若しくは鉄道事業者の鉄道又は軌道法(大正十年法律第七十六号)による新設軌道との交差部分をいう。)、駅前広場その他公共の用に供する工作物又は施設(以下これらを「他の工作物」と総称する。)とが相互に効用を兼ねる場合においては、当該道路の道路管理者及び他の工作物の管理者は、当該道路及び他の工作物の管理については、第十三条第一項及び第三項並びに第十五条から第十七条までの規定にかかわらず、協議して別にその管理の方法を定めることができる。ただし、他の工作物の管理者が私人である場合においては、道路については、道路に関する工事(道路の新設、改築又は修繕に関する工事をいう。以下同じ。)及び維持以外の管理を行わせることができない。」

「(踏切道の改良への協力)
第四十八条の二十八 道路協力団体は、踏切道改良促進法(昭和三十六年法律第百九十五号)第四条第六項(同条第十三項において準用する場合を含む。)に規定する同意をした同条第一項に規定する地方踏切道改良計画又は同法第五条第三項(同条第六項において準用する場合を含む。)において準用する同法第四条第六項に規定する同意をした同法第五条第一項に規定する国踏切道改良計画(以下この条において「同意地方踏切道改良計画等」という。)に道路協力団体の協力が必要な事項が記載されたときは、当該同意地方踏切道改良計画等に基づき鉄道事業者及び道路管理者が実施する踏切道(同法第二条に規定する踏切道をいう。)の改良に協力するものとする。」


1.1 道路法施行令

「(立体交差とすることを要しない場合)
第三十五条 法第三十一条第一項ただし書及び第六項に規定する政令で定める立体交差とすることを要しない場合は次の各号に掲げるものとし、法第四十八条の三ただし書に規定する政令で定める立体交差とすることを要しない場合は第一号及び第三号に掲げるものとする。
一 当該交差が一時的である場合
二 臨港線又は市場線である鉄道が港又は市場に近接して道路と交差する場合及び鉄道が停車場に近接した場所で道路と交差する場合で、立体交差とすることによつて道路又は鉄道の効用が著しく阻害される場合
三 立体交差とすることによつて増加する工事の費用が、これによつて生ずる利益を著しくこえる場合」

考え方の例:(ここに記載した事項は、監督官庁の見解ではなく、安全分析の一専門家のHAZOP実施時の検討例です。当該関係者の安全分析実施時の参考の用に供するものです)

立体交差とすることによって増加する工事の費用には、その工事の耐用年数の期間において保守として必要となる費用を算入し、耐用年数で割って、1年あたりの利益と比較する方法がある。

事故等が発生した場合には、その損害額・被害額が、立体交差とした場合の利益に参入するのが妥当である。


「(指定)
第三条 国土交通大臣は、踏切道における交通量、踏切事故の発生状況その他の事情を考慮して国土交通省令で定める基準に該当する踏切道のうち、平成二十八年度以降の五箇年間において踏切道改良基準(安全かつ円滑な交通の確保のために必要な踏切道の改良の方法に関する国土交通省令で定める基準をいう。以下同じ。)に適合する改良の方法により改良することが必要と認められるものを指定するものとする。
2 都道府県知事は、当該都道府県の区域内に存する踏切道であつて前項の国土交通省令で定める基準に該当するもののうち、平成二十八年度以降の五箇年間において踏切道改良基準に適合する改良の方法により改良することが必要と認められる踏切道について、同項の規定による指定をすべき旨を国土交通大臣に申し出ることができる。
3 都道府県知事は、前項の規定により第一項の規定による指定をすべき旨の申出をしようとするときは、あらかじめ、当該指定に係る鉄道事業者(軌道経営者を含む。以下同じ。)、道路管理者(前条に規定する道路の管理者をいう。以下同じ。)及び関係市町村長の意見を聴かなければならない。
4 国土交通大臣は、第一項の規定による指定をしたときは、国土交通省令で定めるところにより、当該指定に係る鉄道事業者及び道路管理者並びに第二項の規定による都道府県知事の申出があつた場合においては当該都道府県知事に対し、その旨を通知するとともに、告示しなければならない。
5 都道府県知事は、前項の通知を受けたときは、関係市町村長に対し、その旨を通知しなければならない。」


参考文献
 HAZOP-­‐TRIZ連携による交通安全分析, 
 Traffic Safety AnalysiswithHAZOP and TRIZ   日本学術会議安全工学シンポジウム, Tokyo, July 5, 2017. ver 4.0, ○小川明秀(大同大学), 小川 清 <技術士(情報工学)・工学博士>   
https://www.slideshare.net/kaizenjapan/road-traffic-safety-analysis-with-hazop-and-triz

鉄道安全とロアルド ダール , クェンティン ブレイク

ロアルド・ダールの鉄道安全読本
ロアルド ダール
日本経済評論社(2001/12)
値段:¥ 1,470






<この稿は書きかけです。順次追記しています。>
twitter:@kaizen_nagoya
改善日誌(researcmap)
改善の本棚(読書メーター)
改善(booklog)
改善日誌(ameba)
改善の本棚(amazon.co.jp)

Researchmap
「researchmapサービスは、国立研究開発法人科学技術振興機構知識基盤情報部が提供しています。」
「researchmapシステムは、国立情報学研究所社会共有知研究センターにおいて研究開発・提供しています。」

著作権法 第三十二条  
「公表された著作物は、引用して利用することができる。この場合において、その引用は、公正な慣行に合致するものであり、かつ、報道、批評、研究その他の引用の目的上正当な範囲内で行なわれるものでなければならない。 
 2  国若しくは地方公共団体の機関、独立行政法人又は地方独立行政法人が一般に周知させることを目的として作成し、その著作の名義の下に公表する広報資料、調査統計資料、報告書その他これらに類する著作物は、説明の材料として新聞紙、雑誌その他の刊行物に転載することができる。ただし、これを禁止する旨の表示がある場合は、この限りでない。」

https://researchmap.jp/kaizen/
小川清は、名古屋市工業研究所研究員で、著作権法第三十二条に基づいて、「研究」目的で、学術雑誌等で良俗となっている引用形式(書名、著者名、出版社名、ISBNまたはISSN、発行年、ページ等)をできるだけ踏襲するようにしています。
 ただし、kindleで購入した電子書籍には紙のページの記載がないものがあり、必ずしもページを特定できないことがあります。章節番号を記載するか、なるべく情報を補充するようにしています。紙でのページが確認できれば、紙のページを追記することがあります。
 引用の分量は、分野によって妥当な範囲が異なるかもしれません。それぞれの学術分野の引用における制約の範囲に止めるように努力しています。例えば、2割から3割り程度以内のように。引用で、逐条解説的な全部を引用した解説は、事前または事後において著者または著作権者の許諾を得るようにしています。
 研究範囲は、通信規約、言語(自然言語、人工言語)、自動制御(ソフトウェアの自動生成を含む)、工業標準(国際規格、JIS、業界団体規格等)。例えば、言語処理は、言語、自動制御、工業標準を含み、通信規約の一部でもあり、総合的に取り扱っています。文字フォントの今昔文字鏡、日本語語彙体系、多言語処理などの具体的なシステムやサービスを支える技術的な課題に取り組んでいます。短歌形式の言語解析、言語学習、自動生成などは、現在の研究対象の一つです。

なお、他の著作物からの引用は、それぞれの著作者の著作物で、引用に関する部分は、著作権法第三十二条2項の範囲外です。商用利用の場合には、それぞれの著作者にご確認ください。

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2019/01/05

色彩学入門 カラーユニバーサルデザイン、色と安全

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色彩学入門―色と感性の心理
東京大学出版会(2009/05/01)
大山 正 (編集), 齋藤 美穂 (編集)







第7章 色のデザイン
7.2 カラーユニバーサルデザイン

7.2.2 カラーユニバーサルデザインの背景
b) 分子生物学的手法によるハイブリット遺伝子の発見
p.130
「何をもって色覚正常とするか」

c)先天性色覚異常における個人差
p.131
「L錐体にもM錐体にもハイブリット遺伝子が存在し、L錐体とM錐体の遺伝子における塩基配列はきわめて相同性が高い(98%)ことがわかった」

p.132
「従来、一部の身体検査基準に設けられていた色盲不可、色弱可の基準はより適切な対応を求められている。」

7.2.4 カラーユニバーサルデザインの大原則
p,135
「首都圏の地下鉄路線図はカラーユニバーサルデザインを配慮して、駅番号と路線番号がついた。」

7.3 コンピュータを用いた色のデザイン

p148
Apple Human Interface Guideline 2008,6,9

http://developer.apple.com/documentation/UserExperience/Conceptual/OSXHIGuidelines/XHIGIntro/chapter_1_section_1.html
との記述がある。2019年1月現在有効なURLは
https://developer.apple.com/design/human-interface-guidelines/macos/visual-design/color/

参考文献
p.159

Asenjo, A.B., Rim. J., & Orphan. D. D. 1994, Molecular determinants of human red/green color discrimination, Neuron. 12.1131-1138

Merbs. S. L., & Nathans. J., 1992a, Absorption spectra of human cone pigments, Nature, 356, 433-435
Merbs. S. L., & Nathans. J., 1992a, Absorption spectra of the hybrid pigments responsible for anomalous color vision, Science, 258, 464-466

Nathans J., Thomas D., & hones. D. S., 1986 Molecular genius of human color vision: The genes encoding blue, green and red pigments, Science 232 193-202
Nathans. J., Piantanida. T. P., Eddy, R.L., Shows. T.B., & HOogenes. D. s., 1986, Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision. Science 232, 203-210

Neitz. J., & Jacobs, G. H., 1986, Polymorphism of the long-wavelength cone in normal human color vision., Nature, 323, 623-625

Neitz. J., & Jacobs, G. H., 1990, Polymorphism of normal human color vision and its mechanisms., Vision Research, 30, 621-636

Orphan, D.D., Asenjo, A. B., Lee, N., & Pelletier. S. L., 1991, Design, chemical synthesis, expression of genes for the three human color vision pigments, Biochemistry, 30, 11367-11372

山口明彦・北原健二 他 1996, ヒト網膜における赤・緑視物質の発言量(抄録)、日眼会誌, 100, p.215

第9章 色と安全

安全色の経緯の説明がわかりやすい。

p.182 ASA Z 53-1 (1953)を母体にしており、国際的にもかなり早くからなされていたことから、ISOにおける安全色規格が誕生したのちにも、長年JISはISOとは異なる独自路線を歩んできた。」
「21世紀に入り規格の国際適合化を測るためISOは安全色規格の改訂を実施した。」

p. 186 
「図9.2 ,東京と北京における色の潜在危険度の比較(落合ら, 2007)」
「東京と北京における色の潜在危険度を比較した結果を図9.2に示す。これにより、8色の洗剤危険度の順位は、東京では赤(R)>黒(Bk),黄(Y)>赤紫(RP)、オレンジ(O)>青(B)、緑(G)>白(W)の順であり、北京では黒、赤>白、黄、赤紫、オレンジ>青、緑の順であった」
p187
「安全色のリスク認知に関する普遍性と文化的差異について明らかにすることは、安全色の国際標準を確立する上で十分検討の余地があるだろう.」
p.191
ポケモン事件 
「1997年12月子供向けアニメーション番組 ポケットモンスターを視聴した子供たちを中心に軽重さまざまな症状(けいれん発作・意識障害から眼の痛み・不快気分など、さまざまな程度の健康被害)を訴える人々が現われ、全国で700名近い患者が医療機関に搬送された」
「赤と青のきわめて明るい色を含むシーンが十数Hzの周波数で交互に繰り返される刺激(フリッカー刺激という)だった」

第9章の参考文献
p.193 
落合信寿、船越美保子、齋藤美穂, 2007, 安全色のリスク認知における北京と東京の比較:予備調査報告、日本色彩学会誌、31, pp268-275

日比野治雄、佐野裕子、2000、ポケモン事件の視覚的ストレスに関する認知的要因, アニメーション研究, 2, p5-11
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Markov Chain Analysis of Accident Data: The Case of an Oil and Gas Firm in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria,  A. C. Igboanugo , 2009,
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa Vol. 1 (2010) pp 29-38, www.scientific.net doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/JERA.1.29 
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86)
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Hazad And Operability Study and Analysis of Safety Integrity Level Case Study: Ammonia Refrigerant Compressor at Petrocemical Plant, Ali Musyafa, Resti Nabila, Ronny D. Noriyati , 2015
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HAZOP papers references 91-95
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81)
The Application of Software and Safety Engineering Techniques to Security Protocol Development, Nathalie Louise Foster , 2003
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データ重複

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76)
The Seventh Annual U.A.E. University Research Conference Senior & Graduate Students
Design and Simulation of a Humidification-Dehumidification process, For Seawater Desalination, Rana Sabouni, Afra Al-tayyarri, Huda Obaid, Lila Murad, Shymaa Al-molla
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77)
Safety Analysis for Gamma Irradiator Interlocking System
by Hany Sallam, Wesam Z. Ibrahim
International Journal of Computing Academic Research (IJCAR), Volume 4, Number 2, April 2015

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71)
DESIGN OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Peter Griffiths, Peter Griffiths, Chemical Engineer , 
32nd Annual Qld Water Industry Operations Workshop
Showgrounds Complex – Rockhampton, 17 to 19 April, 2007
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74)
TDT4735 System Development Identifying the risks involved in the design of a safety-critical system for an Urban Search and Rescue robot.
 Jean Paul, Franky Friquin, Adviser Siv, Hilde Houmb , 2005

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.297.9186&rep=rep1&type=pdf

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75)
Presentation to the Technical Seminar on Safety and Health in the Petrochemical Industry
 Dennis C. Hendershot, Haas Company
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.199.4399&rep=rep1&type=pdf

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4. The Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE), Risk Analysis in the Process Industries, IChemE, Rugby, Warks., England, 1985
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6. Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), Tools for Making Acute Risk Decisions with Chemical Process Applications, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, in press (available in late 1994)

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