We provide an M-theory geometric set-up to describe four-dimensional N = 1 gauge theories. This is realized by a generalization of Hitchin's equation. This framework encompasses a rich class of theories including superconformal and confining ones. We show how the spectral data of the generalized Hitchin's system encode the infrared properties of the gauge theory in terms of N = 1 curves. For N = 1 deformations of N = 2 theories in class S, we show how the superpotential is encoded in an appropriate choice of boundary conditions at the marked points in different S-duality frames. We elucidate our approach in a number of cases - including Argyres-Douglas points, confining phases and gaugings of T-N theories - and display new results for linear and generalized quivers.
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