MISC

2003年5月

The hierarchical rupture process of a fault: an experimental study

PHYSICS OF THE EARTH AND PLANETARY INTERIORS
  • XL Lei
  • ,
  • K Kusunose
  • ,
  • T Satoh
  • ,
  • O Nishizawa

137
1-4
開始ページ
213
終了ページ
228
記述言語
英語
掲載種別
DOI
10.1016/S0031-9201(03)00016-5
出版者・発行元
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV

We describe the detailed faulting process of a naturally healed fault containing geometric and mechanical asperities in a granitic porphyry sample, based on data collected with a high-speed acoustic emission (AE) waveform recording system. Asperity failure is examined using the detailed spatio-temporal distribution of AE hypocenters. The initial phase of AE activity is also examined using high dynamic range waveforms. Our experimental results indicate that quasi-static nucleation of the heterogeneous fault is associated with the failure of asperities on the fault plane. The fracturing of an asperity is characterized by a dense spatial clustering of AE events and a changing b-value (b, hereinafter), which is manifest in three typical stages of failure as follows: (1) foreshocks exhibiting a decrease in b, (2) a period of mainshocks corresponding to a minimum in b, and (3) aftershocks of increasing b. The progressive fracture of several coupled asperities results in short-term precursory fluctuations in both b and AE rate. Furthermore, some AE events possess similar dynamic rupture features to those of earthquakes, having an initial phase associated with the transition from quasi-dynamic to dynamic rupture. We conclude based on these experimental observations that fault rupture has hierarchical characteristics. Quasi-static nucleation of fault rupture represents dynamic fracture of the asperities on the fault plane; likewise, a quasi-static nucleation process characterized by dynamic microfracturing precedes the fracture of an asperity. Since dynamic motions are easier to detect remotely than static deformations, understanding the hierarchical processes underlying fault rupture may thus be helpful for elucidating quasi-static nucleation at larger scales in terms of the dynamic rupture of the asperities at smaller scales. Careful studies of asperity failure in the lab may guide future seismic studies of large asperities on natural faults, potentially making it possible to recognize the final preparation stage before a large earthquake. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

リンク情報
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9201(03)00016-5
Web of Science
https://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=JSTA_CEL&SrcApp=J_Gate_JST&DestLinkType=FullRecord&KeyUT=WOS:000183700300014&DestApp=WOS_CPL
ID情報
  • DOI : 10.1016/S0031-9201(03)00016-5
  • ISSN : 0031-9201
  • eISSN : 1872-7395
  • Web of Science ID : WOS:000183700300014

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