- ACADEMIC PRESS (LONDON) LTD
The release of elicitors and suppressors by Erysiphe graminis, the powdery mildew pathogen of barley, was investigated by microscopy in combination with micromanipulation. The elicitors enhance inaccessibility whereas the suppressors prevent the action of the elicitors. Conidia were deposited onto barley coleoptiles and incubated for intervals that varied from 1-8 h. These conidia were termed the inducer conidia since they determined whether their presence would induce the cells of the host to become inaccessible to subsequent inoculations with the fungus. At specified intervals after inoculation the conidial germlings were removed from cells with a micromanipulator. The coleoptiles were then incubated for an additional 8 h after which, a new germling of the fungus was transferred to the same cell from which the inducer germling had been removed. This new germling was called the challenge germling since it was used to determine if it could challenge the host cell to express either induced accessibility or enhanced inaccessibility. The ability of these challenge germlings to penetrate the barley host cell was then assessed after they had been incubated on the cell for an additional 19 h. This allowed the determination of whether inaccessibility had been enhanced in the host. Inaccessibility was enhanced in the host only when the inducer conidia were incubated on host cells for more than 7 h. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these challenge germlings did not penetrate into the host cell. Thus, enhanced inaccessibility had occurred. The results indicate that the E. graminis germling released a material that enhanced the inaccessibility of the barley host cells. We refer to this material as an elicitor. The transfer of a challenge germling to a coleoptile was made at various times after the removal of the inducer germling from the tissue. This allowed us to determine that more than 2 h is required for the enhancement of inaccessibility after the removal of the inducer germling From the tissue. If a germling, either the same or a different germling, was left on the host cell continuously, then enhanced inaccessibility did nor occur. Rather, susceptibility occurred. These results suggest that the E, graminis germling releases a material that suppresses inaccessibility. We refer to this material as a suppressor. Thus, the results indicate that E. graminis conidia release an elicitor that enhances inaccessibility of barley cells and that they also release a suppressor that prevents enhanced inaccessibility in the barley cell.
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