- AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Thickness and substrate dependence of film growth, morphology, unit-cell structure, and electronic structures was thoroughly investigated for picene, the zigzag connected 5-ring molecule, by employing complementary techniques of in situ real-time X-ray reflectivity/diffraction, in situ electron spectroscopies, and atomic force microscopy. A different kind of thickness dependent structural transition was observed on SiO2 and graphite, resulting in a distinct electronic structure. On SiO2 picene films with 3D crystalline domains are formed with nearly upright molecular orientation from the initial growth stage. With increasing the film thickness the in-plane dimensions of the unit cell in the initially grown domains become smaller (in other words, more compressed), and, at the same time, crystalline domains with a more relaxed structure are nucleating on top of the compressed domains. In spite of such structural changes, the electronic structure, namely energy position of the highest occupied molecular orbital and threshold ionization potential (IPT), is not significantly altered. On graphite, on the other hand, we found a transition from a 2D (layer) to a 3D (island) growth mode with a variation of the molecular orientation from flat-lying to tilted one. The IPT changes significantly between the 2D and 3D growth regime in contrast to the SiO2 system. The origin of the different In of these picene thin films is discussed. The present results are compared with other planar Jr-conjugated compounds, in particular pentacene which is a structural isomer of picene and shows electronic properties strongly different from picene thin films.
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