論文

査読有り
2018年9月

Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations of Photoevaporation of Protoplanetary Disks. II. Metallicity Dependence of UV and X-Ray Photoevaporation

The Astrophysical Journal

DOI
10.3847/1538-4357/aad9fd

We perform a suite of radiation hydrodynamics simulations of photoevaporating disks, varying the metallicity in a wide range of {10}<SUP>-3</SUP> {Z}<SUB>☉ </SUB>≤slant Z≤slant {10}<SUP>0.5</SUP> {Z}<SUB>☉ </SUB>. We follow the disk evolution for over ̃5000 years by solving hydrodynamics, radiative transfer, and nonequilibrium chemistry. Our chemistry model is updated from the first paper of this series by adding X-ray ionization and heating. We study the metallicity dependence of the disk photoevaporation rate and examine the importance of X-ray radiation. In the fiducial case with solar metallicity, including the X-ray effects does not significantly increase the photoevaporation rate when compared to the case with ultraviolet (UV) radiation only. At subsolar metallicities in the range of Z≳ {10}<SUP>-1.5</SUP> {Z}<SUB>☉ </SUB>, the photoevaporation rate increases as metallicity decreases owing to the reduced opacity of the disk medium. The result is consistent with the observational trend that disk lifetimes are shorter in low metallicity environments. In contrast, the photoevaporation rate decreases at even lower metallicities of Z≲ {10}<SUP>-1.5</SUP> {Z}<SUB>☉ </SUB>, because dust-gas collisional cooling remains efficient compared to far-UV photoelectric heating whose efficiency depends on metallicity. The net cooling in the interior of the disk suppresses the photoevaporation. However, adding X-ray radiation significantly increases the photoevaporation rate, especially at Z̃ {10}<SUP>-2</SUP> {Z}<SUB>☉ </SUB>. Although the X-ray radiation itself does not drive strong photoevaporative flows, X-rays penetrate deep into the neutral region in the disk, increase the ionization degree there, and reduce positive charges of grains. Consequently, the effect of photoelectric heating by far-UV radiation is strengthened by the X-rays and enhances the disk photoevaporation....

リンク情報
DOI
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad9fd
arXiv
http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1805.07992
URL
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3127-5982