AKIYAMA, Mitsuyoshi

J-GLOBAL         Last updated: Sep 7, 2019 at 03:54
 
Avatar
Name
AKIYAMA, Mitsuyoshi
E-mail
akiyama617waseda.jp
URL
http://www.f.waseda.jp/akiyama617/
Affiliation
Waseda University
Section
Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Creative Science and Engineering
Job title
Professor
Degree
Dr. Eng.(Tohoku University)
Research funding number
00302191

Education

 
 
 - 
1995
Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University
 
 
 - 
1997
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School, Division of Engineering, Tohoku University
 

Published Papers

 
Yanweerasak, Thanapol; Yanweerasak, Thanapol; Pansuk, Withit; Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi; Frangopol, Dan M.
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering   1-14   Feb 2018
© 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group This paper proposes a novel probabilistic methodology for estimating the life-cycle reliability of existing reinforced concrete (RC) bridges under multiple hazards. The life-cycle reli...
Yanweerasak, T., Kea, T.M., Ishibashi, H. and Akiyama, M.
Applied Sciences   8(11)    2018   [Refereed]
Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi; Frangopol, Dan M.; Takenaka, Koshin
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering   13(4) 468-477   Apr 2017
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Reinforced concrete (RC) structures in a marine environment deteriorate with time due to chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing bars. Since the RC deck slabs of jetty structures ar...
Lim, Sopokhem; Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi; Frangopol, Dan M.; Jiang, Haitao
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering   13(1) 118-134   Jan 2017
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.The material properties of concrete structures and their structural dimensions are known to be random due to the spatial variability associated with workmanship and various other factors...
Assessment of the structural behavior of corrosion-affected rc beams: Experimental study and modeling
Lim, S.; Akiyama, M.; Frangopol, D. M.
Life-Cycle of Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure - 5th International Symposium on Life-Cycle Engineering, IALCCE 2016   379-384   Jan 2017
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.Structural performance of deteriorated reinforced concrete (RC) members depends on the magnitude and location of steel corrosion. Finite element (FE) method has been applied to the structural performance asses...
Life-cycle reliability assessment of corroded bridges under multiple hazards
Yanweerasak, T.; Takemoto, R.; Akiyama, M.; Frangopol, D. M.
Life-Cycle of Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure - 5th International Symposium on Life-Cycle Engineering, IALCCE 2016   420-426   Jan 2017
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.This paper presents a probabilistic framework for the life-cycle reliability assessment of existing bridges under multiple hazards. The life-cycle reliability of a bridge girder under traffic and airborne chlo...
Furuta, Hitoshi;Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi
STRUCTURE AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING   13(1) 1-1   2017
Lim, Sopokhem;Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi;Frangopol, Dan M.;Jiang, Haitao
STRUCTURE AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING   13(1) 118-134   2017
Ground Motion Evaluation at Yokoe Bridge site in Yatsushiro City for the Main Shock of the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake
HATA Yoshiya;YABE Masaaki;KASAI Akira;TAKAHASHI Yoshikazu;MATSUZAKI Hiroshi;AKIYAMA Mitsuyoshi
Journal of JAEE   17(2) 2_191-2_195   2017
<p>Serious damage was caused to Yokoe Bridge in Yatsushiro City during the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. In this report, seismic waveforms during the 2016 main shock in the bridge were estimated using the site-effect substitution met...
SEISMIC DESIGN FOR &ldquo;ANTI-CATASTROPHE&rdquo; &mdash; A STUDY ON THE IMPLEMENTATION AS DESIGN CODES &mdash;
HONDA Riki;AKIYAMA Mitsuyoshi;NOZU Atsushi;TAKAHASHI Yoshikazu;KATAOKA Shojiro;MURONO Yoshitaka
Journal of JSCE   5(1) 346-356   2017
&nbsp;This paper presents a design concept of &ldquo;anti-catastrophe&rdquo; and proposes a framework of seismic design code for that concept. It proposes that the domain to be considered in the design should be extended in terms of three dimensio...
Hata, Yoshiya; Yabe, Masaaki; Kasai, Akira; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi
Earth, Planets and Space   68(1)    Dec 2016
© 2016 The Author(s).An earthquake of JMA magnitude 6.5 (first event) hit Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, at 21:26 JST, April 14, 2016. Subsequently, an earthquake of JMA magnitude 7.3 (second event) hit Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures at 01:46 JST, Apr...
Lim, Sopokhem; Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi; Frangopol, Dan M.
Engineering Structures   127 189-205   Nov 2016
© 2016 Elsevier LtdThe severity of damage due to corrosion on reinforced concrete (RC) structures primarily depends on the magnitude and location of the steel corrosion. A finite element (FE) method has been used to evaluate the structural perform...
Ghosn, M.; Dueñas-Osorio, L.; Frangopol, D. M.; McAllister, T. P.; Bocchini, P.; Manuel, L.; Ellingwood, B. R.; Arangio, S.; Bontempi, F.; Shah, M.; Akiyama, M.; Biondini, F.; Hernandez, S.; Tsiatas, G.
Journal of Structural Engineering (United States)   142(9)    Sep 2016
© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.Establishing consistent criteria for assessing the performance of structural systems and infrastructure networks is a critical component of communities' efforts to optimize investment decisions for the up...
Thanapol, Yanweerasak; Thanapol, Yanweerasak; Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi; Frangopol, Dan M.
Journal of Bridge Engineering   21(7)    Jul 2016
© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.Although several models are available for evaluating the structural performance of corroded reinforced concrete (RC) structures, seismic reliability assessments considering the effect of steel corrosion a...
Sopokhem Lima, Mitsuyoshi Akiyama, Dan M. Frangopol and Haitao Jiang
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering      Jun 2016   [Refereed]
Akiyama, M.
Journal of Structural Engineering      Jun 2016   [Refereed]
Akiyama, M.
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering      May 2016   [Refereed]
Reliability-based assessment of structures for extreme events
Mitsuyoshi Akiyama
IABSE Summit 2016      Mar 2016   [Invited]
Furuta, Hitoshi; Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering   13(1)    Jan 2016
Investigation of the spatial variability of steel weight loss and corrosion cracking: A novel x-ray technique
Lim, Sopokhem; Jiang, Haitao; Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi
International Conference on Durability of Concrete Structures, ICDCS 2016   265-269   Jan 2016
The performance of corrosion-affected RC members depends strongly on localized damages of reinforcement. Therefore, modeling the spatial variability of steel corrosion is very important for the assessment of the remaining service life of corroded ...
Flexural behavior prediction of SFRC beams: A novel X-ray technique
Lim, S., Okamoto, T., Matsuda, M., Akiyama, M.
38(2) 1351-1356   2016   [Refereed]
Ghosn, M.;Duenas-Osorio, L.;Frangopol, D. M.;McAllister, T. P.;Bocchini, P.;Manuel, L.;Ellingwood, B. R.;Arangio, S.;Bontempi, F.;Shah, M.;Akiyama, M.;Biondini, F.;Hernandez, S.;Tsiatas, G.
JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING   142(9)    2016
Lim, Sopokhem;Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi;Frangopol, Dan M.
ENGINEERING STRUCTURES   127 189-205   2016
Hata, Yoshiya;Yabe, Masaaki;Kasai, Akira;Matsuzaki, Hiroshi;Takahashi, Yoshikazu;Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi
EARTH PLANETS AND SPACE   68    2016
SEISMIC DESIGN METHOD TO CONSIDER "ANTI-CATASTROPHE" CONCEPT — A STUDY FOR THE DRAFT OF DESIGN —
HONDA Riki;AKIYAMA Mitsuyoshi;KATAOKA Shojiro;TAKAHASHI Yoshikazu;NOZU Atsushi;MURONO Yoshitaka
Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. A1 (Structural Engineering & Earthquake Engineering (SE/EE))   72(4) I_459-I_472   2016
 It is requested to implement the concept of "anti-catastrophie" property in the seismic design codes. It is not, however, a straight forward task because "anti-catastrophe" concept has various significant differences from existing design codes. T...
DAMAGE ANALYSIS OF RC RIGID FRAME VIADUCTS AFFECTED BY 2011 GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE
UNO Kunihiko;INABA Tomoya;KOBAYASHI Masashi;AKIYAMA Mitsuyoshi
Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. A1 (Structural Engineering & Earthquake Engineering (SE/EE))   72(4) I_506-I_514   2016
 This paper describes the damage to RC rigid frame viaducts caused by the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In this study, a three-dimensional dynamic nonlinear analysis is carried out to investigate the extent of seismic damage of Daiichi Nakason...
ANALYSIS OF "ANTI-CATASTROPHE" PROPERTY IN JRA AND FOREIGN DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES
TAKAHASHI Yoshikazu;AKIYAMA Mitsuyoshi;KATAOKA Shojiro;HONDA Riki
Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. A1 (Structural Engineering & Earthquake Engineering (SE/EE))   72(4) I_821-I_830   2016
 As the lessons from severe damage of civil infrastructures due to Tsunami and ground motion in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, "Anti-Catastrophe" concept can be a paradigm shift in structural / seismic design method. In a conventional desig...
点検・検査情報を活用した既存RC構造物の耐久信頼性照査に用いる部分係数
狩野淳一,秋山充良,吉田郁政
構造工学論文集   61A 81-90   Mar 2015
本震観測記録を利用した2003 年三陸南地震における猪鼻高架橋および中曽根高架橋での地震動の推定
秦吉弥,秋山充良,高橋良和,野津厚
構造工学論文集   61A 174-187   Mar 2015
Visualization of corroded steel bars in RC beams usiging digita image processing of X-ray photograms
Lim, S., Jiang, H., Okamoto, T. and Akiyama, M.
コンクリート工学年次論文集   37(2) 1327-1332   2015
サイト特性を考慮した強震動によるRCラーメン高架橋の地震被害分析に関する基礎的研究, コンクリート工学年次論文集
石橋寛樹, 秦吉弥, 秋山充良
コンクリート工学年次論文集   37(2) 955-960   2015
[Invited Lecture]Long term performance of concrete bridges under extreme events
Mitsuyoshi Akiyama and Dan M. Frangopol
Proceedings of 9th Austroads Bridge Conference      Oct 2014
Performance analysis of Tohoku-Shinkansen viaducts affected by the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake
Akiyama, M., Frangopol, D.M. and Mizuno, K.
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering   10(7) 1228-1247   Jul 2014
[Keynote Lecture] Bridge life-cycle performance and lessons from infrastructure failures due to the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami
Dan M. Frangopol and Mitsuyoshi Akiyama
Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Infrastructure Failures and Consequences   1-13   Jul 2014
更新理論とマルコフ連鎖モデルを用いた鉄筋コンクリート構造物の塩害劣化予測に関する基礎的研究
竹中孔信,萩野統也,秋山充良,吉田郁政
コンクリート工学年次論文集   36(2) 1357-1362   Jul 2014
Long-term seismic performance of RC structures in an aggressive environment: emphasis on bridge piers
Akiyama, M. and Frangopol, D.M.
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering   10(7) 865-879   May 2014
SPGA モデルと経験的サイト増幅・位相特性を考慮した2011 年東北地方太平洋沖地震における長町高架橋での地震動とフラジリティカーブの評価
秦吉弥,秋山充良,高橋良和,後藤浩之,野津厚,一井康二
構造工学論文集   60A 214-227   Mar 2014
STRONG MOTION ESTIMATION ALONG ODAKI AND HIEDA VIADUCTS FOR THE 2003 SOUTHERN SANRIKU EARTHQUAKE BASED ON ASPERITY MODEL CONSIDERING EMPIRICAL SITE AMPLIFICATION AND PHASE EFFECTS
HATA Yoshiya;TAKAHASHI Yoshikazu;AKIYAMA Mitsuyoshi;GOTO Hiroyuki;NOZU Atsushi
PROCEEDINGS OF THE JSCE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM   70(4) I_560-I_577   2014
 Serious damage occurred at RC rigid frame viaduct sites of Tohoku Shinkansen in Esashi Ward, Oshu City, during the 2003 Southern Sanriku Earthquake (MJ7.1). In order to analyze the damage mechanism, it is important to evaluate strong ground motio...
Integrated Evaluation of Structural Performance over Time of Concrete Structures with Chloride Induced Damage
Concrete Journal (Tokyo. 1963)   52(3) 243-250   2014
This paper presents some of the results achieved by Technical Committee on Systematization to Evaluate Structure and Durability Performance in Corroded RC Structure, which works to establish the use of numerical structural analysis as an evaluatio...
Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi;Frangopol, Dan M.
STRUCTURE AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING   10(7) 865-879   2014
Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi;Frangopol, Dan M.;Mizuno, Keita
STRUCTURE AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING   10(9) 1228-1247   2014
[Early Career Keynote Lecture] Life-cycle design of bridges under multiple hazards: Earthquake, tsunami and continuous deterioration
Akiyama, M. and Frangopol, D.M.
11th ICOSSAR (International Conference of Structural Safety and Reliability)      Jun 2013
摩擦振子免震機構を有するコンクリート橋脚に生じる地震後の残留変位に関する実験的検討
金井晴弘,阿部遼太,秋山充良,小野潔
コンクリート工学年次論文集   35(2) 811-816   Jun 2013
Reliability of bridges under tsunami hazards: Emphasis on the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake
Akiyama, M., Frangopol, D.M., Arai, M. and Koshimura, S.
Earthquake Spectra   29(S1) S295-S314   May 2013
高強度RC杭の開発とその構造性能評価に関する実験的研究
秋山 充良, 内藤 英樹, 三浦 稔, 浅沼 大寿, 荒川 岳, 武田 篤史, 佐藤 啓, 鈴木 基行
土木学会論文集E2   69(1) 118-137   Mar 2013
Particle filter for model updating and reliability estimation of existing structures
Yoshida, I. and Akiyama, M.
Smart Structures & Systems   11(1) 103-122   Jan 2013
スーパーアスペリティモデルと経験的サイト増幅・位相特性を考慮した2011年東北地方太平洋沖地震による南三陸志津川での強震動の評価
秦吉弥,秋山充良,高橋良和,後藤浩之,野津厚,幸左賢二
土木学会論文集B3   69(2) I_161-I_166   2013
Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi;Frangopol, Dan M.;Arai, Megumi;Koshimura, Shunichi
EARTHQUAKE SPECTRA   29 S295-S314   2013
STRONG MOTION ESTIMATION IN SHIZUGAWA, MINAMISANRIKU TOWN, FOR THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE BASED ON A SUPER ASPERITY MODEL CONSIDERING EMPIRICAL SITE AMPLIFICATION AND PHASE EFFECTS
HATA Yoshiya;AKIYAMA Mitsuyoshi;TAKAHASHI Yoshikazu;GOTO Hiroyuki;NOZU Atsushi;KOSA Kenji
PROCEEDINGS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN THE OCEAN   69(2) I_161-I_166   2013
 Enormous damage occurred to the disaster countermeasures office, the river bridges and the fishery port facilities in Shizugawa, Minamisanriku Town due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9. 0). To evaluate the performance o...
Particle filter for model updating and reliability estimation of existing structures
Yoshida, Ikumasa;Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi
SMART STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS   11(1) 103-122   2013
[Keynote Lecture]Lessons from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: Emphasis on life-cycle structural performance
Akiyama, M. and Frangopol, D.M.
IALCCE (International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering)      Oct 2012
Akiyama, M., Abe, S., Aoki, N. and Suzuki, M.
Engineering Structures   34 259-270   2012
Akiyama, M., Frangopol, D.M. and Suzuki, M.
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering   8(2) 125-134   2012
Akiyama, M., Matsuzaki, M., Dang, D.H. and Suzuki, M.
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering   8(12) 1096-1107   2012
2011 年東北地方太平洋沖地震とフラジリティ解析による鉄道RC1層ラーメン橋脚の耐震補強効果の評価
水野恵太,秋山充良
コンクリート工学年次論文集   34(2) 937-942   2012
変動曲面上を滑る摩擦振子を有するコンクリート橋脚の地震応答特性に関する基礎的研究
金井晴弘,阿部遼太,青木直,秋山充良
コンクリート工学年次論文集   34(2) 817-822   2012
Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi;Abe, Satoshi;Aoki, Nao;Suzuki, Motoyuki
ENGINEERING STRUCTURES   34 259-270   2012
Visualization of Corrosion Process in RC Member Using X-Ray
AKIYAMA Mitsuyoshi;NAKAJIMA Keita;KOMORIYA Takashi
Concrete Research and Technology   22(3) 35-45   Sep 2011
It is important to estimate the amount of corrosion products in existing RC structures subjected to chloride attack. However, the corrosion process of rebar has not been investigated because of difficulties with observing it. Recently, X-ray techn...
Book Review -Durability design of concrete structures in severe environments by Odd E. Gjorv (Taylor & Francis, 2009)-
Mitsuyoshi Akiyama
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering   7(1) 197   2011
Naito, H., Akiyama, M. and Suzuki, M.
Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE   16(1) 72-81   2011
Akiyama, M., Frangopol, DM. and Matsuzaki, H.
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics   40(15) 1671-1687   2011
X線撮影を用いたRC部材内の鉄筋腐食成長過程の可視化に関する基礎的研究
秋山充良,中嶋啓太,小森谷隆
コンクリート工学論文集   22(3) 35-45   2011
海洋環境下にあるRC 橋脚のライフタイムにわたる耐震信頼性評価
松崎裕,秋山充良,黒田千砂子
コンクリート工学年次論文集   33(2) 877-882   2011
構造形態の工夫によるコンクリート構造の長周期化に関する基礎的研究
秋山充良,青木直,阿部遼太,黒田千砂子
コンクリート工学年次論文集   33(2) 859-864   2011
高強度構成材料を用いたRC柱の一軸圧縮特性と寸法効果
阿部諭史,秋山充良,鈴木基行
構造工学論文集   57A 386-394   2011
Akiyama, Mitsuyoshi;Frangopol, Dan M.;Matsuzaki, Hiroshi
EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING & STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS   40(15) 1671-1687   2011
Flexural Strength of Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Piles Using High-Strength Material
Akiyama, M., Suzuki, M. and Abe, R.
Proceedings of the 3rd fib congress   3 CD-ROM (ID: 17)   2010
Stress-Averaged Strain Model for Confined High-Strength Concrete
ACI Structural Journal
M. Akiyama, M. Suzuki, and D.M. Frangopol   107(2) 179-188   2010
Akiyama, M., Frangopol, D.M., and Yoshida, I.
Engineering Structures   32(11) 3768-3779   2010
[Keynote Lecture]On life-cycle reliability under earthquake excitations of corroded reinforced concrete structures
M. Akiyama, Dan M. Frangopol
IALCCE (International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering)      2010
SMCSを用いたRC構造物劣化度逆推定のための塩化物イオン濃度計測誤差のモデル化
吉田郁政,鈴木修一,秋山充良
応用力学論文集   13 79-88   2010
塩害環境下にあるコンクリート桁の設計耐用期間にわたる構造安全性評価手法とそのプレテンションPC桁への適用
松崎裕,秋山充良,大木文宏,中嶋啓太,鈴木基行
土木学会論文集E   66(2) 147-165   2010
構造物のエネルギー収支に着目した準脆性材料の破壊靭性評価に関する基礎的研究
車谷麻緒,湯本達也,寺田賢二郎,京谷孝史,秋山充良
応用力学論文集   13 313-322   2010
軸圧縮力と1方向正負交番曲げを受けるスパイラル鋼管の耐震性能とその評価法
小野潔,薮本篤,秋山充良,大西宵平,白戸真大,西村宣男
土木学会論文集F   66(2) 301-318   2010

Books etc

 
Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering
Dan M. Frangopol, M. Akiyama
Springer   2010   

Conference Activities & Talks

 
Life-cycle reliability of bridges under independent and interacting hazards [Invited]
Mitsuyoshi Akiyama
9th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management (IABMAS2018)   2018   
Lessons from recent major earthquakes in Japan: Emphasis on reliability assessment of structures under multiple hazards [Invited]
Mitsuyoshi Akiyama
18th ASEP International Convention   2017   
Long term performance of concrete bridges under multiple hazards [Invited]
Mitsuyoshi Akiyama
TU1406 COST Action Workshop   2016   
Lessons from the recent earthquakes in Japan based on field investigations of damage to bridge [Invited]
Mitsuyoshi Akiyama
MPSS (Ministry of Public Safety and Security) Meeting   2016   
Probabilistic approach for road network retrofitting prioritization under seismic and tsunami hazards [Invited]
Mitsuyohis Akiyama
5th International Symposium on Reliability Engineering and Risk Management (ISRERM2016)   2016   

Association Memberships

 
 

Research Grants & Projects

 
Improvement of seismic response of bridges focused on uncertainty / discontinuity in structural system
Project Year: Apr 2014 - Mar 2018
Due to 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, many bridges suffered serious damages at structural boundaries and connections. In order to evaluate seismic response of bridges focused on discontinuity in structural system, s...
Three Dimensional Visualization of Steel Corrosion Process in RC Member Using X-Ray and Digital Image Processing
Project Year: Apr 2013 - Mar 2015
It is important to estimate the amount of corrosion products in existing RC structures subjected to chloride attack. However, the corrosion process of rebar has not been investigated because of difficulties with observing it. Recently, X-ray techn...
Life-cycle management of bridges under seismic and airborne chloride hazards
Project Year: Apr 2012 - Mar 2016
The evaluation of the displacement ductility capacity based on the buckling model of longitudinal rebars in corroded RC bridge piers is established, and a novel computational procedure to integrate the probabilistic hazard associated with airborne...
Establishment of system of science and technology on evaluation of performance of concrete structures with material deterioration
Structural performance of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures which had been deteriorated by reinforcement corrosion, alkali-silica reaction and frost damage were investigated through laboratory test, loading test of actual structures a...
Updating of random variables associated with demand and capacity using observation information and estimates of remaining lifetime of deteriorated structures
This study presents a framework for estimating the remaining lifetime of reinforced concrete structures in a marine environment based on the observation information such as visual inspection of corrosion cracks and chloride concentration distribut...