- MANEY PUBLISHING
Obesity is known to be the primary causal component in metabolic syndrome. Adipocytes in obese patients exhibit increased oxidative stress via the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing systems and inactivation of antioxidant enzymes. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an anti-inflammatory enzyme that protects cells from the damaging effects of ROS. An earlier report showed that plasma EC-SOD levels in type 2 diabetic patients were significantly and inversely related to body mass index and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index. Moreover, the administration of pioglitazone, an antidiabetic agent, significantly increased the plasma level of EC-SOD. In this report, the expression of EC-SOD was compared to other adipocytokines in mice 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. EC-SOD expression levels were increased after the induction of differentiation and then declined, which was similar to adiponectin and transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha). On the other hand, the expression levels of pro-inflammatory adipocytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 1 (MCP-1), increased markedly in the development stage of cells. It was observed that the expression of EC-SOD in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells col cultured with LPS-stimulated J774 macrophages was up-regulated, while the addition of TNF-alpha down-regulated EC-SOD and adiponectin expression in adipocytes. It is known that infiltrated and activated macrophages produce extracellular ROS at high levels in adipose tissue. It is possible that the expression of EC-SOD in adipocytes was stimulated to protect them from oxidative stress in the col culture system.
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