- WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Leukemic cell lines, such as U937, THP-1, and HL60 cells, can differentiate into macrophages following exposure to various agents including 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in vitro. It is well known that TPA enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX), and ROS act as mediators in TPA signaling. Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a major anti-oxidative enzyme that protects the cells from damaging effects of superoxide. Recently, the reduction of Cu/Zn-SOD and the induction of Mn-SOD by TPA in leukemic cells have been reported; however, the regulation of EC-SOD by TPA remains poorly understood. Here, we explored the regulation of EC-SOD during the monocytic differentiation of U937 cells by TPA. We observed the reduction of EC-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD, whereas the induction of Mn-SOD during the differentiation of U937 cells. The reduction of EC-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD was attenuated by pretreatments with GF109203X (an inhibitor of protein kinase C, PKC), diphenyleneiodonium (an inhibitor of NOX), and U0126 (an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, MEK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase, ERK). Interestingly, pretreatment with BAY11-7082 (an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B, NF-kappa B) suppressed the reduction of Cu/Zn-SOD, but not of EC-SOD. Furthermore, we also determined the involvement of newly synthesized protein and the instability of mRNA in the reduction of EC-SOD. Overall, our results suggest that the expression of EC-SOD is decreased by TPA through intracellular signaling consisting of PKC, NOX-derived ROS and MEK/ERK, but not of NF-kappa B signaling. J. Cell. Biochem. 112: 244-255, 2011. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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