- PHARMACEUTICAL SOC JAPAN
Cadmium (Cd), an industrial and environmental pollutant, preferentially accumulates in the kidney, a major target for Cd-related toxicity. It has been reported that Cd exposure produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces cytotoxicity. Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that protects the cells from damaging effects of ROS; however, the effect of Cd on the expression of EC-SOD in COS7 cells remains unclear. In this study, exposure to cadmium chloride (CdCl2) enhanced intracellular ROS generation and induced COS7 cell death. Moreover, exposure to Cd decreased the expression of EC-SOD at mRNA and protein levels, but not of other SOD isozymes, copper-and zinc-containing SOD and manganese-containing SOD. The reduction of EC-SOD and cell viability was partially attenuated by pretreatment with an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. Further, we determined the involvement of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) in the reduction of EC-SOD. From these observations, p38-MAPK signaling cascades activated by ROS play a pivotal role in the reduction of EC-SOD, and it is concluded that the reduction of EC-SOD leads to a decrease in the resistance to oxidative stress of Cd-exposed COS7 cells.
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