SATO Motoyuki

J-GLOBAL         Last updated: Aug 8, 2019 at 09:52
SATO Motoyuki
Tohoku University
Center for Northeast Asian Studies Department of Basic Studies Division of Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Job title
Dr. Eng(Tohoku University)
Other affiliation
Tohoku University

Research Areas


Academic & Professional Experience

Apr 2009
Mar 2013
Director, Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Tohoku University
Apr 2008
Mar 2011
Distinguished Professor, Tohoku University
Apr 1997
東北大学 教授 (東北アジア研究センター)
Apr 1990
Mar 1997
Associate Professor, Tohoku University
Apr 1989
Mar 1990
Lectuerer, Tohoku Univesity


Mar 1980
通信工学, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University
Mar 1985
情報工学専攻, Graduate School, Division of Engineering, Tohoku University

Committee Memberships

Jan 2006
Dec 2014
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society  AdCom member
Apr 2013
May 2015
電子情報通信学会 電磁界理論研究会  副委員長
Apr 2003
Mar 2014
Society of Geophysical Exploration of Japan  理事
Oct 2004
日本 学術会議URSI-F分科会  委員
Apr 2003
The Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts (SPWLA)  Director(Japan Chapter)

Awards & Honors

Mar 2018
Pavement Surface Deformation Monitoring by Radar Interferometry Technique, ICT, IEICE
Winner: Lilong Zou, SATO Motoyuki
Dec 2017
IEEE Ulrich L. Rohde Innovative Conference Paper Awards on Antenna Measurements and Applications, IEEE Antennas and Prppagation Society
Jun 2017
Kiyasu Award, IEICE
Winner: Riafeni Karlina,SATO Motoyuki
Jul 2012
IEEE GRSS Education Award, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society
Winner: Motoyuki Sato
Oct 2014
2014 The Frank Frischknecht Leadership Award, SEG(地球物理探査学会)
Winner: Motoyuki Sato
For his sustained and important contributions to near-surface geophysics in the field of ground-penetrating radar

Published Papers

Optimization of a sparse array antenna for 3D imaging in near range
Andrey LYULYAKIN and Motoyuki SATO
IEICE Transactions on Electronics   E102-C(1) 1-5   Jan 2019   [Refereed]
Feng Weike, Jean-Michel Fried, Motoyuki Sato
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing   12(7) 2055-2068   Jul 2019   [Refereed]
Giovanni Nico, Giuseppe Cifarelli, Gianluca Miccoli, Filippo Soccodato,Weike Feng , , Motoyuki Sato , Salvatore Miliziano, and Maurizio Marini
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering   43(4) 822-829   Oct 2018   [Refereed]
W. Feng, J-M. Friedt, and M. Sato
IEEE Sensors Journal   19(2) 594-602   Jan 2019   [Refereed]
Iakov Chernyak and Motoyuki Sato
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters   15(10) 1515-1519   Oct 2018   [Refereed]
Weike Feng, Jean-Michel Friedt, Grigory Cherniak, and Motoyuki Sato
Review of Scientific Instruments   89(104701)    Oct 2018   [Refereed]
SATO Motoyuki
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters   1-5   Sep 2018   [Refereed]
W. Feng, L. Yi and M. Sato
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observation and Remote Senisng   11(6) 2079-2089   Jun 2018   [Refereed]
Li Yi, Lilong Zou, Kazunori Takahashi and Motoyuki Sato
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observation and Remote Senisng   11(3) 1005-1015   Mar 2018   [Refereed]
Low- cost passive bistatic radar system for moving target detection
Weike Feng, Jean-Michel Friedt, Kazutaka Kikuta, and Motoyuki Sato
第43 回 リモートセンシングシンポジウム      Mar 2018   [Refereed]
Landslide monitoring by GB-SAR at Tateno site, Minami-Aso
SATO Motoyuki
Proc. Int. meeting on Eruptive History and Informatics   84-96   Jan 2018   [Refereed][Invited]
Riafeni Karlina, SATO Motoyuki
Nonlinear Theory and Its Applications, IEICE   9(1) 121-136   Jan 2018   [Refereed]
Yasunari MORI, Takayoshi YUMII, Yumi ASANO, Kyouji DOI, Christian N. KOYAMA, Yasushi IITSUKA, Kazunori TAKAHASHI, Motoyuki SATO
IEICE Transactions on Electronics   E101.C(1) 26-34   Jan 2018   [Refereed]
Influence of Soils on Metal Detector and Modelling of the Performance in Landmine Detection
TAKAHASHI Kazunori, SATO Motoyuki
J100-C(12) 589-596   Dec 2017   [Refereed][Invited]
Software defined radio implementation of passive
F. Weike, G. Cherniak, J.-M Friedt, SATO Motoyuki
URSI-F Report      Dec 2017   [Refereed]
SATO Motoyuki
IEEE CAMNA 2018      Dec 2017   [Refereed]
GPR for Nondestructive Pavement Inspection
SATO Motoyuki
Proc. Piers 2018      Nov 2017   [Refereed]
Application for GPR Survey to Faults in Mogod Earthquake in Central Mongolia
Tsogtbaatar Amarsaikhan・Motoyuki Sato
IEICE Technical Report   117(222) 11-16   Oct 2017   [Refereed]
Nondestructive Inspection of Pavement by MIMO GPR ”YAKUMO”
Zou Lilong, SATO Motoyuki
IEICE Technical Report   117(222) 55-60   Oct 2017   [Refereed]
A Practical Approach for High-resolution Pavement Inspection with Multistatic Array GPR YAKUMO
Li Yi, Lilong Zou, SATO Motoyuki
IEICE Technical Report   117(222) 49-54   Oct 2017   [Refereed]
Acoustic wave transducers as Ground Penetrating RADAR cooperative targets for sensing applications
SATO Motoyuki
IEICE Technical Report   117(222)    Oct 2017   [Refereed]
Delineation of Tsunami Deposites by an Array GPR System "Yakumo"
LIU Hai, Wang Honghua, SATO Motoyuki
IEICE Technical Report      Oct 2017   [Refereed]
GPR for Archaeological Survey
SATO Motoyuki
CONFERENCIA DE DIFUSIÓN DE INVESTIGACIÓN Workshop on the foundations of GPR system and applications 13th October 2017      Oct 2017   [Refereed][Invited]
Development of Non-Destructive Inspection Sensor for Wooden Structures (7)
IEICE Technical Report   117(222) 33-38   Oct 2017   [Refereed]
Recent Activities on Archaeological Survey by GPR
SATO Motoyuki
IEICE Technical Report   117(222) 89-94   Sep 2017   [Refereed]
SATO Motoyuki
Proc. URSI General Assembly      Aug 2017   [Refereed]
SATO Motoyuki
IEEE Xplore      Jul 2017   [Refereed]
Realtime 3D image reconstruction methods based on compressive sensing with CUDA support
SATO Motoyuki
IEICE Technical Report   117(74) 19-24   May 2017   [Refereed]
Pavement Surface Deformation Monitoring by Radar Interferometry Technique
SATO Motoyuki
IEICE technical report   117(67) 45-50   May 2017   [Refereed]
Motoyuki Sato
proceedings of the Detection and Sensing of Mines, Explosive Objects, and Obscured Targets XXII conference      May 2017   [Refereed]
Antenna Design for the Sparse Array and the Array Pattern Optimization
信学技報   116(526) 103-107   Mar 2017   [Refereed]
Monitoring of Infrastructure by GB-SAR
Motoyuki SATO Lilong ZOU Giovanni NICO
信学技報   116(526) 11-16   Mar 2017
3D GIS model assisted survey to design and estimate Ground- Based SAR illumination
Amila Karunathilake and Motoyuki Sato
第42回リモートセンシングシンポジウム      Mar 2017   [Refereed]
Natural Disaster Mitigation by Radio Science Technologies
Motoyuki Sato, Lilong Zou
電子情報通信学会総合大会講演予稿集   BI-3-1    Mar 2017   [Invited]
An Advanced algorithm for surface deformation monitoring of an airport taxiway by GB-SAR
Lilong Zou、Motoyuki Sato
IEICE technical report   116(387) 109-114   Jan 2017
Yasunari MORI, Takayoshi YUMII, Yumi ASANO, Kyouji DOI, Christian N. KOYAMA, Yasushi IITSUKA Kazunori Takahashi and Motoyuki Sato
IEICE Trans. Electron.   E100-C(1) 60-67   Jan 2017   [Refereed]
Si-Wei Chen, Xue-Song Wang and Motoyuki Sato
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing   54(12) 6919-6929   Dec 2016   [Refereed]
2D Imaging by Sparse Array Radar System
Weike Feng、Lilong Zou、Motoyuki Sato
IEICE technical report   116(309) 65-70   Nov 2016
Nondestructive Inspection of Airport Taxiways by Multi-Static Array GPR “YAKUMO”
Lilong Zou、Motoyuki Sato
IEICE technical report   116(309) 71-76   Nov 2016
Cross Bow-Tie Antenna for Multistatic Ground Penetrating Radar
Motoyuki Sato, Yasushi Iizuka
2016 International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP)      Oct 2016   [Refereed]
佐藤 源之
第10回 日本電磁波エネルギー応用学会シンポジウム      Oct 2016   [Invited]
Least square image reconstruction method for sparse array radar system
I. Chernyak and M. Sato
2016 International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP)   632-633   Oct 2016   [Refereed]
Takashi Kido and Motoyuki Sato
BUTSURI-TANSA   69(4) 269-279   Oct 2016   [Refereed]
Christian N. Koyama, Hideomi Gokon, Masaru Jimbo, Shunichi Koshimura, Motoyuki Sato
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing   (120) 84-98   Oct 2016   [Refereed]
Hai Liu, Christian Koyama, Jie Cui, Qinghuo Liu and Motoyuki Sato
Remote Sensing   8(11) 935   Aug 2016   [Refereed]
森 康成、弓井 孝佳、 浅野 有美、土井 恭二、クリスティアン コヤマ、飯塚 泰、高橋 一徳、佐藤 源之
IEICE technical report   SANE2016-15    Jul 2016
高橋一徳・劉 海・クリスティアン コヤマ・駒木野智寛・佐藤源之
Butsuri-tansa   69(3) 185-194   Jul 2016   [Refereed]
Radar technologies against Natural disaster and Man-made hazards
Motoyuki Sato
16th Conference of the science council of Asia      Jun 2016   [Refereed]
GPR Application to Landmine Detection and Humanitarian Activities
Motoyuki Sato
Interbnational GPR Conference 2016      Jun 2016   [Refereed][Invited]
Phoebe T. W. WONG, Wallace W. L. LAI and Motoyuki Sato
Interbnational GPR Conference 2016      Jun 2016   [Refereed]
M. Sato, L. Yi, Y. Iitsuka, L. Zou, K. Takahashi
Interbnational GPR Conference 2016      Jun 2016   [Refereed]
Fundamental Experiment on Passive Bistatic Radar Imaging using TV broadcasting wave
Bo YANG, Lilong ZOU,Motoyuki SATO
IEICE technical report   116(75) 27-32   Jun 2016
Y. Iitsuka, C. N. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and M. Sato
2015 IEEE 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Antennas and Propagation (APCAP) Proceedings   261-262   Jun 2016   [Refereed]
佐藤 源之
日本地球惑星科学連合2016年大会      May 2016   [Refereed][Invited]
GPR Reflection Signal from a Thin Layer
Motoyuki Sato and Zhihao Deng
物理探査学会第134回(平成28年度春季)学術講演会      May 2016
On the Confusion of the Terminology of Resistivity in Japanese
佐藤 源之
物理探査学会第134回(平成28年度春季)学術講演会      May 2016
及川高瑛、園田 潤、本間規泰、佐藤源之
電気学会論文誌A (基礎・材料・共通部門誌)   136(5) 235-240   May 2016   [Refereed]
Enhancement of the migrated results with the deblurring filter
Li Yi, Kazunori Takahashi, and Motoyuki Sato
European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016 (EGU2016)      Apr 2016   [Refereed]
Li Yi, Kazunori Takahashi, and Motoyuki Sato
10th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP2016)      Apr 2016   [Refereed]
Takamura, M., K. Udo, M. Sato, and K. Takahashi
Journal of Coastal Research   (Sp. Iss. 75) 477-481   Mar 2016   [Refereed]
Near range radar image reconstruction algorithm by caustic finding
Iakov Chernyak, Motoyuki Sato
信学技報   115(430) 81-85   Jan 2016
Riafeni Karlina, and Motoyuki Sato
IEICE Trans. Electron.   E99-C(1) 44-51   Jan 2016   [Refereed]
Li Yi, Kazunori Takahashi, and Motoyuki Sato
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing   9(1) 9-17   Jan 2016   [Refereed]
Riafeni Karlina and Motoyuki Sato
IEICE Transactions on Electronics   E99-C(1) 44-51   Jan 2016   [Refereed]
Hai Liu, Jianguo Zhao and Motoyuki Sato
佐藤 源之
信学技報      Nov 2015   [Invited]
a Long-term monitoring of a landslide slope in Kurihara-city, Miyagi, by GB-SAR
高橋一徳・ゾウ リーロン・佐藤源之
信学技報   115(325) 85-90   Nov 2015
Development of Non-Destructive Inspection Sensor for Wooden Structures(6)Development of 3D Imaging Radar Prototype
森 康成・弓井孝佳・浅野有美・土井恭二・クリスティアン コヤマ・飯塚 泰・高橋一徳・佐藤源之,
信学技報   115(325) 75-80   Nov 2015
土井 恭二, 浅野 有美, 森 康成, 弓井 孝佳, 高橋 一徳, 佐藤 源之
信学技法   115(325) 13-17   Nov 2015
佐藤 源之
信学技報   115(279) 109-114   Oct 2015
電子情報通信学会 電磁会理論シンポジウム
土木学会論文集B2 (海岸工学)   71 I_1711-I_1716   Oct 2015   [Refereed]
Motoyuki Sato, Kazunori Takahashi, Yasushi Iitsuka and Christian Naohide Koyama
Asia-Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (APSAR) 2015, Proceedings   306-309   Sep 2015   [Refereed]
佐藤 源之、高橋一徳、飯塚泰、クリスチャン コヤマ,土井恭二、森康成、弓井孝佳、浅野有美
電波技術協会報 (FORN)   (306) 6-9   Sep 2015
Shunichi Kusano, Kazunori Takahashi and Motoyuki Sato
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in AppliedEarth Observations and Remote Sensing   8(8) 393-340   Sep 2015   [Refereed]
電子情報通信学会ソサイエティ大会講演論文集エレクトロニクス(1)   17-17   Aug 2015
Christian N. Koyama, Yasushi Iitsuka, Kazunori Takahashi, and Motoyuki Sato,
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (IGARSS ) 2015, Proceedings   2719-2722   Jul 2015   [Refereed]
Milan, Italy
Si-Wei Chen, Yong-Zhen Li, Xue-Song Wang, Christian N. Koyama, Motoyuki Sato
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (IGARSS ) 2015, Proceedings   3790-3793   Jul 2015   [Refereed]
Milan, Itay
Li Yi, Kazunoni Takahashi, Motoyuki Sato
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (IGARSS ) 2015 Proceeding   1060-1063   Jul 2015   [Refereed]
Milano, Italy
Radiation of Electromagnetic Wave from an Antenna Placed Close to a Boundary of Materials : Simulation of GPR Antenna
佐藤源之・高橋一徳・麻谷由香・飯塚 泰
信学技報   115(143) 65-70   Jul 2015
Yasunari Mori, Yumi Asano, Takayoshi Yumii, Kyouji Doi, Kazunori Takahashi, and Motoyuki Sato
International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar 2015 (IWAGPR) Proceeding   1-4   Jul 2015   [Refereed]
Firenze, Italy
Motoyuki Sato, Kazunori Takahashi
International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar 2015 (IWAGPR) Proceeding   1-4   Jul 2015   [Refereed]
Christian N. Koyama and Motoyuki Sato
2015 IEEE Radar Conference Proceedings   440-445   Jun 2015   [Refereed]
Cape Town, South Africa
Development of small size spiral antenna for UWB radar
飯塚 泰、高橋一徳、佐藤源之
信学技報   115(40) 57-62   May 2015
瑞巌寺境内遺跡 瑞巌寺参道再生工事に伴う確認調査報告書 付章 レーダー探査
Motoyuki Sato
松島町文化財調査報告書 第6集   21-24   Mar 2015
Ground-penetrating radar for landmine detection
Kazunori Takahashi, Motoyuki Sato
Mine Action Seminar, Ankara, Turkey      Feb 2015   [Refereed]
Kazunori Takahashi, Jan Igel, Holger Preetz, Motoyuki Sato
Radio Science   50(2) 79-86   Feb 2015   [Refereed]
Influence of soil magnetic property on metal detector
Kazunori Takahashi
EMT-15-58、電子情報通信学会 電磁界理論研究会、   299-303   Jan 2015   [Refereed]
Soil moisture measurements by Ground Penetrating Radar in Dry Areas
M. Sato, C. Koyama, S. Kuroda, K. Takahashi, and H. Fujimaki
Proc. of 2014 Workshop on ALRC Cooperative Research   69-72   Dec 2014   [Refereed]
Tottori, Japan
Effective GPR Data Acquisition and Imaging
AUG Fall meeting      Dec 2014   [Refereed]
Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology
M. Sato
AUG Fall meeting      Dec 2014   [Refereed][Invited]
Y.Iitsuka, C. Koyama, K.Takahashi and M.Sato
信学技報   101-106   Nov 2014
EMT-14-142, 草津
Displacement measurement and monitoring with Ground-Based SAR; case study at Aratozawa
Lilong Zou, Kazunori Takahashi Motoyuki SATO
Proc. of Asian Pacific Microwave Conference   1022-1024   Nov 2014   [Refereed]
Polarimetric UWB SAR for subsurface imaging of building structures
C. N. Koyama, K. Takahashi, Y. Iitsuka, and M. Sato
Proc. of Asian Pacific Microwave Conference   1025-1027   Nov 2014   [Refereed]
Performance of a landmine detection radar system and heterogeneous soil properties
Kazunori Takahashi, Jan Igel, Holger Preetz
エレクトロニクス講演論文集C-1-16   16    Sep 2014   [Refereed]
電子情報通信学会 ソサイエティ大会、徳島
Detection and mapping of UXOs by electromagnetic induction sensor and self-tracking total station
Kazunori Takahashi,Motoyuki Sato
FastTimes   19(3) 14-18   Sep 2014   [Refereed]
CS detection based on interleaved sub-images for the atmospheric correction of GB-SAR interferometry
Kazunori Takahashi, Masayoshi Matsumoto, Motoyuki Sato
信学技報   25-30   Aug 2014   [Refereed][Invited]
AP2014-76,電子情報通信学会 アンテナ・伝播研究会、新潟
Si-Wei Chen1, Yong-Zhen Li1, Xue-Song Wang1, Motoyuki Sato
Proc. URSI General Assembly      Aug 2014   [Refereed][Invited]
Beijing, China
Array GPR “Yakumo” and Its Application to Archaeological Survey and Environmental Studies
Motoyuki Sato
Proc. URSI General Assembly      Aug 2014   [Refereed][Invited]
Beijing, China
Si-Wei Chen, Xue-Song Wang and Motoyuki Sato
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing   52(8) 4756-4770   Aug 2014   [Refereed]
Motoyuki Sato, Kazunori Takahashi, Hai Liu, Christian N. Koyama
IGARSS2014   2601-2604   Jul 2014   [Refereed]
Quebec, Canada


Motoyuki Sato
IEEJ Transactions on Fundamentals and Materials   132(1) 1-4   Jan 2012
佐藤 源之
OHM   100(12) 10-11   Dec 2013
佐藤 源之
科学技術動向研究   22-32   Oct 2005
Development of a Landmine detection sensor for humanitarian demining
Motoyuki Sato
青淵   (714)    Sep 2008
佐藤 源之、Lu Qi
地質ニュース   (642) 60-63   Feb 2008

Books etc

Target Scattering Mechanism in Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar
Chen, S.-W., Wang, X.-S., Xiao, S.-P., Sato, M. (Part:Joint Work)
Springer   Apr 2018   ISBN:978-981-10-7269-7
It is the first book on deep interpretation and application of target scattering mechanism in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data
Proposes advanced and generalized polarimetric target decompositions to precisely interpret and u...
地中レーダを応用した遺跡探査 -GPRの原理と利用-
佐藤源之、金田明大、高橋一徳 (Part:Joint Work)
東北大学出版会   Mar 2016   
Motoyuki Sato, Kazunori Takahashi, Takao Kobayashi, Jun Fujiwara and Xuan Feng (Part:Joint Work, Chapter 7 Vehicle mounted dual sensor: SAR-GPR)
ARS publisher   Feb 2008   ISBN:978-3-902613-11-0
Subsurface Sensing
Motoyuki Sato
Wiley   Sep 2011   ISBN:978-0-470-13388-0
Antennas and Wireless Communication Handbook
Motoyuki Sato
Ohmsha   Oct 2006   
Ground Penetrating Radar 2nd Edition
Motoyuki Sato
IEE   Oct 2004   
History of Wireless
Gentei Sato, Motoyuki Sato (Part:Joint Work, Chapter 24, The antenna development in Japan: Past and Present pp455-472)
Wiley Interscience   Jan 2006   
Anti-personnel Landmine Detection for Humanitarinan Demining
Motoyuki Sato (Part:Joint Work, Chapter 2 Principles of Mine Detection by Ground-Penetrating Radar, Chapter 3 Development of Dual Sensors and Deployment in Mine Affeted Coutries)
Springer   May 2009   ISBN:978-1-84882-345-7
Sensing the Past
Masini, Nicola, Soldovieri, Francesco (Eds.) (Part:Joint Work)
Springer   May 2017   ISBN:978-3-319-50518-3
佐藤 源之 (大内和夫 編著)
コロナ社   Mar 2017   ISBN:978-4-339-00894-4

Conference Activities & Talks

SATO Motoyuki
IET INternational Radar Conference 2018   17 Oct 2018   IET
GPR survey of sand dune after Tsunami
4th Workshop On Coastal Remote Sensing Applications   11 Nov 2016   
第10回日本電磁波エネルギー応用学会シンポジウム   12 Oct 2016   
MAGDA 2015 in Tohoku   13 Nov 2015   
日本AEM学会 (The Japan Society of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics)、東北大学電気通信研究所
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) /UWB radar Fundamentals to application
International Radar Conference   14 Oct 2015   

Research Grants & Projects

Ground Penetrating Radan
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research
Project Year: Apr 1988   
Borehole Rader
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research
Project Year: Apr 1988   
Remote Sensing
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research
Project Year: Apr 1997   
The Other Research Programs
Project Year: Apr 2000   
Humanitarian Demining
JST Basic Research Programs (Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology :CREST)
Project Year: Apr 2000   


2850994 : スロットアンテナを利用するボアホールレーダ

Social Contribution

[Others]  Dec 2008 - Today
くらし☆解説 「"掘らずに調べる"考古学」
[TV or radio appearance, Contribution]  NHK総合テレビ  13 Nov 2013
[Others]  Aug 2008
[Informant]  朝日新聞  30 Dec 2016
[Others]  Dec 2007 - Jan 2008


Apr 2009
Nov 2011
Aug 2014
Dec 2004
Landmine detection test in Afghansitan
May 2005
Landmine detcetion test in Egypt