OKAMOTO Satoru

J-GLOBAL         Last updated: May 11, 2019 at 10:31
 
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Name
OKAMOTO Satoru
E-mail
okamotocis.shimane-u.ac.jp
Affiliation
Shimane University
Section
Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering A
Degree
Master of Engineering(Osaka University), Doctor of Engineering(Osaka University)

Profile

Dr. Satoru Okamoto is currently a Professor in the Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering at Shimane University, Japan since 1995. He pursued his degree in M.Sc. in 1977 and Ph. D in mechanical engineering in 1980 from Osaka University. Then, he worked as a researcher in the Research & Development Department at Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd (IHI). At IHI, he worked as a researcher of aircraft engines and gas turbines, and had also designed compressors and fans of jet engines. Prof. Okamoto has served as Editorial Board Member for leading energy journals and Chairperson of the 10th International Symposium on Advanced Science and Technology in Experimental Mechanics (10th ISEM '15-Matsue). In addition, he has published over 150 journal and conference publications, as well as 4 book chapter-authors for his researching performance. His current research interest lies in advanced thermal and fluids science and technology such as flow-induced vibrations, small-scale energy systems with gas turbines and heat pumps, and experimental fluid dynamics and heat transfer.

Research Areas

 
 

Academic & Professional Experience

 
 
   
 
Aero-Engineering & Space Operations,
 
 
   
 
Ishikawajima-Harima Heary Industries Co., Ltd.
 
 
   
 
Institute of Japan, Research Scientist
 
 
   
 
Associate Professor
 
1980
 - 
1983
Research & Development Department,
 
1983
 - 
1988
Foundation : Systems Research & Development
 
1988
 - 
1995
Niihama National College of Technology,
 
Jul 1994
 - 
Dec 1994
Visiting Research Scientist, Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics
 
1995
   
 
- Shimane University, Professor
 
Oct 1995
 - 
Mar 2012
Professor, Shimane University Interdisciplinary Faculty of Science and Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Computer Science Applied Informatics
 

Education

 
 
 - 
1975
Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka University
 
 
 - 
1980
Graduate School, Division of Engineering Science, Osaka University
 

Committee Memberships

 
1975
   
 
JSME  
 
2001
   
 
AIAA  
 
2007
   
 
Applied Thermal Engineering (Elsevier) Reviewer (2007~ )
 
Feb 2007
   
 
The Open Civil Engineering Journal(Bentham Science Publishers) Editorial Advisory Board (2007.2~ )
 
2008
   
 
The First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, DALIAN China, Invited Reviewers (JULY 14-16, 2008)
 
2009
   
 
Power and Energy Systems (AsiaPES 2009) International Program Committee, Beijing China (Oct 12-14, 2009)
 
2011
   
 
The IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems and Applications, Pittsburgh, USA, International Program Committee (November 7 – 9, 2011)
 
Jul 2011
   
 
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Member of Editorial Board (2011.7~)
 
2012
 - 
Today
IASTED Power and Energy Systems (AsiaPES 2013), Bangkok Thailand (April 24-26, 2013)  International Program Committee
 
Oct 2012
 - 
Today
The 8th International Symposium on Advanced Science and Technology in Experimental Mechnics, November 3-6,2013  Organizing Committee
 

Published Papers

 
OKAMOTO Satoru
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Elsevier Science   91(1-2) 65-74   Jan 2003   [Refereed]
Satoru Okamoto
Journal of the Japanese Society for Experimental Mechanics   12 s255-s260   Sep 2012   [Refereed]
Energy-saving and Economical Evaluations of a Ceramic Gas Turbine Cogeneration Plant
OKAMOTO Satoru
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE)   2(2) 89-96   2013   [Refereed]
Case Studies of Energy Saving and CO2 Reduction by Cogeneration and Heat Pump Systems
OKAMOTO Satoru
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE)   2(2) 107-120   2013   [Refereed]
Flow-Induced Acoustic Resonances in Exhaust Gas Economizer Tube Banks
OKAMOTO Satoru
Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation (JMEA)   3(3) 159-167   2013   [Refereed]
Acoustic Resonance in Exhaust Gas Economizer Tube Bundles—Prediction and Suppression of Resonance
OKAMOTO Satoru
Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation (JMEA)   4(10) 770-780   2014   [Refereed]
Use of Accelerators for Biomechanical Analysis of Walking Motion Aided by Wheeled Walking Frames
OKAMOTO Satoru
Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation (JMEA)   4(9) 699-708   2014   [Refereed]
Evaluation of Skills in Swing Technique in Classical Japanese Swordsmanship in Iaido Using Sensors
OKAMOTO Satoru, Satomi Adachi
Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation (JMEA)   6(4) 190-196   2016   [Refereed]
Evaluation of Skills in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Using Microsoft Kinect
S. Okamoto*, H. Iwashiki, N. Sato and K. Karino
Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation (JMEA)   8(6) 264-272   2018   [Refereed]
Visualization of Acquisition Experience in Sternal Compression Maneuver Using Kinect Sensoring: For Co-Creation of Medical Technique Experiential Values
N. Sato, K. Akai, M. Hirose, S. Okamoto* and K. Karino
International Journal of Automation Technology   12(4) 542-552   2018   [Refereed]

Misc

 
The Effect of Sound on the Rate of Heat Transfer from a Cylinder Placed Normal to an Air Stream
S. Okamoto, T. Hirose and T. Adachi
Bulletin of the JSME   45(390) 241-250   1979
The Effect of Sound on the Rate of Heat Transfer from a Cylinder Placed Normal to an Air Stream(jointly worked)
S.Okamoto
Bulletin of the JSME   22(172) 1407-1415   1979
The Effect of Sound on the Vortex-shedding from a Circular Cylinder (Acoustical Vibrations Directed along Axis of Cylinder)
S. Okamoto, T. Hirose and T. Adachi
Bulletin of the JSME   46(405) 813-820   1980
The Effect of Sound on Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Around a Heated Cylinder in Cross Flow(Acoustical Vibrations Directed along Axis of Cylinder
S. Okamoto, T. Hirose and T. Adachi
Bulletin of the JSME   47(422) 1986-1994   1981
The Effect of Sound on the Vortex-shedding from a Circular Cylinder(Acoustical Vibrations Directed along Axis of Cylinder)(jointly worked)
S.Okamoto
Bulletin of the JSME   24(187) 45-53   1981
S.Okamoto
Journal of The Heat Transfer Society of Japan   27(107) 84-97   1988
The Effects of Sound Waves on the Near Wake of a Heated Circular Cylinder
S.Okamoto
Journal of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences   37(422) 25-33   1989
Topics of Local Energy
S.Okamoto
Energy and Resources   10(3) 75-82   1989
An Investigation into the Actual Condition About the Trade of Petroleum Goods (Kerosene and Liquid Petroleum-Gas)
S.Okamoto
Energy and Resources   10(5) 78-83   1989
S.Okamoto
Journal of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences   38(432) 23-29   1990
Energy System and Local Development
S.Okamoto
Journal of JSES   16(1) 33-40   1990
Effect of Sound on Vortex-shedding from a Circular Cylinder-Acoustical Vibrations Directed Normal to the Axis of Cylinder-
S.Okamoto
Transactions of the Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning Engineers   44 1-10   1990
Plans of Cold-Storage Enterprise of Meat by Methane-Gas of Waste of Pigs
S.Okamoto
Journal of Heating, Air Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers   64(8) 49-55   1990
Plans of Using Geothermal Water Flowing out of the Gold Mine in Hishikari-cho of Kagoshima Prefecture
S.Okamoto
Journal of The Society of Engineers for Mineral Springs, Japan   24(1) 7-17   1990
The Availability of Computer for Fluid Dynamics Education
S.Okamoto
The Memoirs of the Niihama National College of Technology   27 25-32   1991
Energy Estimation of Ceramic Gas Turbine Cogeneration System
S.Okamoto
ENERGY CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY   55-60    1993
Energy Estimation of Ceramic Gas Turbine Cogeneration System
S.Okamoto
Energy Conversion and Utilization with High Efficiency   99-106   1993
Quantitative visualization of complex, unsteady flow via laser-scanning particle image velocimetry
S.Okamoto and D.Rockwell
Proceedings of 5th Joint Symposium on Fluid Control and Measurement, Tokyo, 1995   137-142   1995
Visualization of Vortex-Fin Interaction : Quantitative Interpretation of Flow Structure(jointly worked)
S.Okamoto, Y.Monden and D.Rockwell
Transactions of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences   39(125) 329-337   1996
Quantitative Interpretation of Vortex-Fin Interaction via Particle Image Velocimetry and Measurement of Surface Pressure Loading(jointly worked)
S.Okamoto, Y.Monden and D.Rockwell
Transactions of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences   40(128) 87-102   1997
An Investigation of Actual Conditions about Waste Energy from Chemical Factory and Paper & Pulp Factory
S.Okamoto
Energy and Resources   18(4) 82-86   1997
Energy Estimation of Ceramic Gas Turbine Cogeneration System
S.Okamoto
Energy and Resources   18(6) 75-81   1997
S.Okamoto, Y.Monden and D.Rockwell
Journal of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences   46(533) 354-362   1998
S.Okamoto
Transactions of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers   34(4) 299-304   1998
S.Okamoto
Transactions of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers   34(4) 305-310   1998
Visualization Study of Vortex Breakdown-Fin Interaction Using PIV and Pressure Measurement
S.Okamoto
Proc. The Fifth Asian Symp. on Visualization, Bedugul-Bali, Indonesia   D10.1-6   1999
Numerical Simulation and Visualization of Three-Dimensional Cavity Thermal Flow by Finite Volume Method
S.Okamoto
18 55-58   1999
The effect of sound on the heat transfer and the vortex-shedding from a heated circular cylinder : Acoustical vibrations directed along its axis
S.Okamoto
Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Flow-Induced Vibration -FIV 2000, Lucerne, Switzerland   7 587-594   2000
S.Okamoto
Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers   66(648) 2065-2072   2000
S.Okamoto
Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers   66(649) 2370-2376   2000
Flow Induced Acoustic Resonances in Exhaust Gas Economizer Tube Banks
S.Okamoto
Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Marine Engineering, Tokyo, Japan ISME TOKYO   6 625-632   2000
Visualization of Numerical Simulation Data by Open GL Library
S.Okamoto
266-267   2000
Impingement of Broken-Down Vortex on Tail
S.Okamoto
Proceedings of the 4th Pacific International Conference on Aerospace Science and Technology, PICAST 4, Kaohsiung, Taiwan   4 119-122   2001
May21-23, 2001
Flow Visualization and Pressure Distribution over a Fin Undergoing Vortex-Breakdown Interaction (Paper F0010)
S.Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 10th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV 10, Kyoto, Japan   1-8   2002
August 26-29, 2002
Visualization Study of Vortex Breakdown-Fin Interaction Using PIV and Pressure Measurement (Paper 2002-e-17)
S.Okamoto
Proceedings of 23rd International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, 23rd ISTS, Matsue, Japan   23 1-7   2002
May 26 - June 2 2002
A Heat Pump System with Latent Heat Storage Utilizing Seawater Installed in an Aquarium
S. Okamoto, K. Nada, T. Kuriyama and M. Koyama
Proceedings of the International Conference on Power Engineering-03 (ICOPE-03), Kobe, Japan   ICOPE-03 3.45-3.50   2003
November 9-13, 2003
Wind Induced Vibration of Roof Tiles (Paper No.#19)
S. Okamoto and R. Nanba
CD-ROM Proceedings of The International Modal Analysis Conference, IMAC-XXII, Dearborn, Michigan, USA   IMAC-XXII 1-8   2004
January 26-29, 2004
Economical and Environmental Aspects of Heat Pump System Utilizing Unused Energy in Aquarium (ASME PWR 2004-52101)
S.Okamoto
2004 Proceedings of the ASME Power Conference, March 30-April 1,2004 Baltimore,Maryland,USA   ASME PWR 2004 1-8   2004
WIND INDUCED VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF ROOF TILES
S.Okamoto and R.Nanba
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference On Flow-Induced Vibration FIV2004, Paris, France   Ⅱ 397-402   2004
6-9 July 2004
Wind Effect on Behavior of roof Tiles
S.Okamoto and R.Nanba
CD-ROM Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Advances in Structural Engineering & Mechanics (ASEM'04), Seoul, Korea   3 799-805   2004
2-4 September 2004
Assessment of Heat Pump System Utilizing Unused Energy in Aquarium: Cost Analysis and Energy Consumption (AIAA IECEC 2004-5651)
S.Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 2nd International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Rhode Island, Providence, USA   2 1-8   2004
16-19 August 2004
A Study of Actual Conditions about Waste Heat from Factories (AIAA-2005-5571)
S.Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 3rd International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference and Exhibit, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, San Francisco, California, USA   3 1-8   2005
15-18 August, 2005
S.Okamoto
Energy and Buildings, Elsevier Science   38(2) 121-128   2006
An Analysis of Actual Conditions About Waste Heat from Factories (AIAA-2006-4055)
S.Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 4th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference and Exhibit, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, San Diego, California, USA   4 1-8   2006
26-29 June, 2006
Structural Dynamics and Response of Roof Tiles under Wind Loading (PVP2006-ICPVT11-93046)
S.Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 2006 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference, Vancouver, Canada   PVP2006-ICPVT11 1-9   2006
July 23-27, 2006
S. Okamoto, R. Nanba, K. Shibao, M. Satou and Y. Shibao
Journal of Environment and Engineering, Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers   2(2) 237-246   2007
R. Nanba, S. Okamoto, A. Okuda and Y. Shibao
Journal of Environment and Engineering, Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers   2(3) 611-620   2007
Technical Potential of Energy Saving in a Hospital by Cogeneration System (AIAA-2007-4759)
S.Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 5th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference and Exhibit, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, St. Louis, Missouri, USA   AIAA-2007 1-8   2007
25-27 June, 2007
Energy Saving in a Hospital: Assessing Economic and Technical Potential (Paper No.E027)
S.Okamoto
The International Conference on Power Engineering – 2007, Hangzhou, China   ICOPE-2007 1-6   2007
October 23-27, 2007
Structural Dynamics and Response of Roof Tiles under Wind Loading: Effect of Vibration on Scattering (IMECE2007-41479)
S.Okamoto
Proceedings of IMECE2007, 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Seattle, Washington, USA   IMECE2007 1-9   2007
November 11-15, 2007
Waste Heat from Chemical Factories and Paper Factories (IMECE2007-41020)
S.Okamoto
Proceedings of IMECE2007, 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Seattle, Washington, USA   IMECE2007 1-7   2007
November 11-15, 2007
Energy Consumption and Technical Potential of Energy Saving in a Hospital (Paper No. TP01_04)
S.Okamoto
The First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE), DALIAN China   1 1-8   2008
JULY 14-16, 2008
Wind Tunnel Tests on Flow-Induced Vibration and Scattering of Japanese Roof Tiles (Paper No. TP12_01)
S.Okamoto
The First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE), DALIAN China   1 1-8   2008
JULY 14-16, 2008
Economic and Technical Potential of Energy Saving in Hospital (AIAA-2008-5622)
S.Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 6th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Cleveland, OH, USA   6 1-9   2008
28-30 July, 2008
INTERACTION BETWEEN WIND LOADING AND JAPANESE SLATES: EFFECT ON VIBRATION AND SCATTERING (PVP2008-61093)
S.Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 2008 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA   PVP2008 1-9   2008
July 27-31, 2008
WIND TUNNEL TESTS ON FLOW-INDUCED VIBRATIONS AND SCATTERING OF JAPANESE SLATES (FEDSM2008-55016)
S.Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of FEDSM 2008, ASME 2008 Fluids Engineering Conference, Jacksonville, Florida, USA   FEDSM2008 1-9   2008
August 10-14, 2008
ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF ENERGY SAVING IN A HOSPITAL (ES2008-54017)
S.Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of ES2008, ASME Energy Sustainability 2008, Jacksonville, Florida, USA   ES2008 1-8   2008
August 10-14, 2008
Energy Saving by ESCO (Energy Service Company) Project in Hospital (AIAA 2009-4568)
S.Okamoto
7th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Denver, Colorado, USA   AIAA 2009 1-8   2009
2 - 5 August 2009
EFFECT ON SLATES BY WIND OVER ROOF OF JAPANESE RESIDENCE (IMECEC2009-10575)
S.Okamoto
Proceedings of IMECE2009 2009 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA   IMECEC2009 1-9   2009
November 13-19, 2009
ENERGY SAVING BY ESCO (ENERGY SERVICE COMPANY) PROJECT IN JAPANESE HOSPITAL (IMECE2009-10576)
S.Okamoto
Proceedings of IMECE2009 2009 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA   IMECE2009 1-9   2009
November 13-19, 2009
S. Okamoto, R. Nanba and Y. Shibao
Journal of Environment and Engineering, Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers   4(3) 512-523   2009
S. Okamoto
Proceedings of 12TH International Conference on Engineering, Science, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environments, The American Society of Civil Engineers, Honolulu, HI, USA, Paper No.36, March 14-17, 2010.   2179-2187   2010
S. Okamoto
Proceedings of 12TH International Conference on Engineering, Science, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environments, The American Society of Civil Engineers, Honolulu, HI, USA, Paper No.517, March 14-17, 2010.   2256-2266   2010
S. Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of the International Heat Transfer Conference, IHTC14, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Washington, DC, USA, August 8-13, 2010.   IHTC14(22107) 1-9   2010
A CASE STUDY OF ENERGY SAVING BY CCHP TECHNOLOGY IN A HOSPITAL (IMECE2010-37348)
S. Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of IMECE2010, 2010 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, November 12-18, 2010.   IMECE2010(37348) 1-8   2010
EFFECT ON WATER LEAK OF TILED ROOFS BY WIND FLOW OVER JAPANESE RESIDENCE (IMECE2010-37347)
S. Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of IMECE2010, 2010 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, November 12-18, 2010.   IMECE2010(37347) 1-8   2010
Saving Energy in Hospitals with CCHP (AIAA 2011-126)
S. Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Orlando, Florida, USA, 4 - 7 January 2011.   AIAA 2011(126) 1-9   2011
Wind Effect on Vibration and Scattering Behavior of Japanese Slate (AIAA 2011-671)
S. Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Orlando, Florida, USA, 4 - 7 January 2011.   AIAA 2011(671) 1-9   2011
Saving energy in a hospital utilizing CCHP technology
Satoru Okamoto
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering   2(2) 45-55   2011
Satoru Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of IEEE 2011 International Conference on Fluid Power and Mechatronics (FPM 2011), art. no. 6045725, Beijing, China, August 17-20 2011, (ISBN:978-1-4244-8449-2).   36-41   Aug 2011   [Refereed]
Satoru okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of IEEE 2011 International Conference on Fluid Power and Mechatronics (FPM 2011), art. no. 6045724, Beijing, China, August 17-20 2011, (ISBN:978-1-4244-8449-2).   30-35   Aug 2011   [Refereed]
Investigation of Walking Motion with the Aid of Walker
Satoru Okamoto* and Tetsuya Hirotomi
CD-ROM Proceedings of the 2012 ICME, IEEE International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering, July 1 - 4,2012, Kobe, Japan   74-79   Jul 2012   [Refereed]
Experimental Study of Water Leak Phenomena of Japanese Tiled Roofs under Vibration and Scattering by Wind Tunnel Testing
Satoru Okamoto
CD-ROM Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Paper Ref: 2883, Portugal, 22-27, July, 2012.   1-9   Jul 2012   [Refereed]

Books etc

 
Fast and Practical Solution of the Discrete Inverse Scattering Problems(jointly worked)
SIGNAL PROCESSING IV : Theories and Applications, North-Holland   1988   
Simultaneous Estimation of Area and Loss Functions of Lossy Nonuniform Acoustic Tubes(jointly worked)
SIGNAL PROCESSING V : Theories and Applications, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.   1990   
Wavefront Array Implementation of Scattering and Inverse Scattering Solution Methods(jointly worked)
SIGNAL PROCESSING V : Theories and Applications, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.   1990   
Basic Programming (BASIC, FORTRAN, PASCAL, C)
Morikita Sytupan   1993   ISBN:4-627-83520-5
Wind Tunnels : Edited by Satoru Okamoto
InTech   2011   ISBN:978-953-307-295-1

Works

 
Energy Estimation of Ceramic Gas Turbine Cogeneration System
1990 - 1992
Study on Heat Demand Prediction in New Urban Residence System
1987
Investigation into the Actual Condition About the Trade of Kerosene
1984 - 1987
An Investigation into the Actual Condition about the Waste Energy in a Chemical Factory and a Paper Factory
1993
The Research and Development of a Welding Robot System for the Small Production
1992 - 1993

Research Grants & Projects

 
Eco-energy Urban System
Project Year: 1999   
Study on Flow Induced Vibration
Project Year: 1997   
Research on Distributed Energy Systems
0024 (Japanese Only)
Project Year: 1985 - 2012
Research on Simulation Technology and Data Visualization
Research on Green Computing
Project Year: 2004 - 2012