- NATL ACAD SCIENCES
Several 400- to 800-kb murine chromosome domains switch from early to late replication during loss of pluripotency, accompanied by a stable form of gene silencing that is resistant to reprogramming. We found that, whereas enhanced nuclease accessibility correlated with early replication genome-wide, domains that switch replication timing during differentiation were exceptionally inaccessible even when early-replicating. Nonetheless, two domains studied in detail exhibited substantial changes in transcriptional activity and higher-order chromatin unfolding confined to the region of replication timing change. Chromosome conformation capture (4C) data revealed that in the unfolded state in embryonic stem cells, these domains interacted preferentially with the early-replicating chromatin compartment, rarely interacting even with flanking late-replicating domains, whereas after differentiation, these same domains preferentially associated with late-replicating chromatin, including flanking domains. In both configurations they retained local boundaries of self-interaction, supporting the replication domain model of replication-timing regulation. Our results reveal a principle of developmentally regulated, large-scale chromosome folding involving a subnuclear compartment switch of inaccessible chromatin. This unusual level of regulation may underlie resistance to reprogramming in replication-timing switch regions.
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- DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1207185109
- ISSN : 0027-8424
- Web of Science ID : WOS:000307538200063