This paper deals with the behavior of the potentialinduced degradation (PID) of n-type single-crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules with a rear-side emitter. The n-type rear-emitter modules were fabricated by encapsulating n-type bifacial solar cells with the p(+)-emitter side down. The modules show degradation mainly characterized by decreases in the opencircuit voltage (V-oc) and the fill factor (FF), under negative bias. The degradation is saturated within 1 h, and normalized V-oc decreases to approximately 0.96. Their dark current densityvoltage (J-V) data and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) indicate that the drop in V-oc is caused by an increase in the saturation current density due to the enhanced surface recombination of minority carriers. The degree of the degradation of PV performance is not, however, considerably severe in the n-type rear-emitter c-Si PV modules, and they are relatively resistant to PID compared to other types of PV modules. This may become an advantage of the n-type rear-emitter c-Si PV modules particularly for the usage in very large-scale PV systems.
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