The CHOP regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (DOX), vincristine and prednisolone has been the most used regimen for peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Pirarubicin [tetrahydropyranyladriamycin (THP)], a derivative of DOX, is an anthracycline with reportedly less cardiotoxicity than DOX. Here, we confirmed the efficacy of THP-COP using THP instead of DOX in the treatment of PTCL-NOS. The study protocol employed a retrospective, consecutive entry design. We retrospectively analysed 56 patients with PTCL-NOS who had received THP-COP or CHOP. These regimens were performed every 21 days. Twenty-nine patients received THP-COP, and 27 received CHOP. There were no significant differences in known prognostic factors, including in the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the prognostic index for T-cell lymphoma (PIT), between the two groups. Complete remission rates in patients with THP-COP and CHOP were 52% in both groups; the 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 67% and 52% (p = 0.074), and the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 51% and 29% (p = 0.070), respectively. In patients with low IPI (low or low-intermediate), THP-COP had significantly better 3-year OS (100% vs. 64%; p < 0.001) and 3-year PFS (75% vs. 33%; p < 0.05) than CHOP. Similar differences between THP-COP and CHOP were observed in patients with a low PIT (groups 1 or 2). Our study showed that THP-COP produced results equivalent to CHOP regarding efficacy and safety in patients with PTCL-NOS. In patients with low IPI or PIT, THP-COP resulted in significantly better prognosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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