INTRODUCTION: Cortical thickness of the femoral diaphysis is assumed to be a preferred parameter in the assessment of the structural adaptation by mechanical use and biological factors. This study aimed to investigate the age- and sex-specific characteristics in cortical thickness of the femoral diaphysis between young and elderly non-obese people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigated 34 young subjects (21 men and 13 women; mean age: 27 ± 8 years) and 52 elderly subjects (29 men and 23 women; mean age: 70 ± 6 years). Three-dimensional (3D) cortical thickness of the femoral diaphysis was automatically calculated for 5000-8000 measurement points using the high-resolution cortical thickness measurement from clinical CT data. In 12 assessment regions created by combining three heights (proximal, central, and distal diaphysis) and four areas of the axial plane at 90° (medial, anterior, lateral, and posterior areas) in the femoral coordinate system, the standardized thickness was assessed using the femoral length. RESULTS: As per the trends, (1) there were no differences in medial and lateral thicknesses, while the posterior thickness was greater than the anterior thickness, (2) the thickness in men was higher than that in women, and (3) the thickness in young subjects was higher than that in elderly subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are of clinical relevance as reference points to clarify the causes of various pathological conditions for diseases of the lower extremities.