Objective: The present study aimed to survey seasonal changes in reproductive performance in local cows receiving artificial insemination (AI) in the Pursat province of Cambodia, a tropical country, to investigate if ambient conditions affect the reproductive performance of cows as to better understand the major problems regarding cattle production. Methods: The number of cows receiving AI, resultant number of calving and calving rate were analyzed for those receiving the first AI from 2016 to 2017. The year was divided into three seasons: cool/dry (from November to February), hot/dry (from March to June), and wet (from July to October), based on the maximal temperature and rainfall in Pursat, to analyze the relationship between ambient conditions and the reproductive performance of cows. Body condition scores (BCS) and feeding schemes were also analyzed in these seasons. Results: The number of cows receiving AI was significantly higher in the cool/dry season than the wet season. The number of calving and calving rate were significantly higher in cows receiving AI in the cool/dry season compared with the hot/dry and wet seasons. The cows showed higher BCSs in the cool/dry season compared to the hot/dry and wet seasons probably due to the seasonal changes in the feeding schemes: These cows grazed on wild grasses in the cool/dry season but fed with a limited amount of grasses and straw in the hot/dry and wet seasons. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the low number of cows receiving AI, low number of calving and low calving rate could be mainly due to poor body condition as a result of the poor feeding schemes during the hot/dry and wet seasons. The improvement of body condition by the refinement of feeding schemes may contribute to an increase in the reproductive performance in cows during the hot/dry and wet seasons in Cambodia.