The mechanism of bovine endometrial regeneration after parturition remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that bovine endometrial stem/progenitor cells participate in the postpartum regeneration of the endometrium. Flow cytometry analysis identified the presence of side population (SP) cells among endometrial stromal cells. Endometrial SP cells were shown to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. RNA-seq data showed that the gene expression pattern was different between bovine endometrial SP cells and main population cells. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified the enrichment of stemness genes in SP cells. Significantly (false discovery rate < 0.01) upregulated genes in SP cells contained several stem cell marker genes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the upregulated genes in SP cells showed enrichment of terms related to RNA metabolic process and transcription. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of upregulated genes in SP cells revealed enrichment of signaling pathways associated with maintenance and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells. The terms involved in TCA cycles were enriched in GO and KEGG pathway analysis of downregulated genes in SP cells. These results support the assumption that bovine endometrial SP cells exhibit characteristics of somatic stem/progenitor cells. The ratio of SP cells to endometrial cells was lowest on days 9-11 after parturition, which gradually increased thereafter. SP cells were shown to differentiate into epithelial cells. Collectively, these results suggest that bovine endometrial SP cells were temporarily reduced immediately after calving possibly due to their differentiation to provide new endometrial cells.