Agronomically important traits often develop during the later stages of crop growth as consequences of various plant-environment interactions. Therefore, the temporal physiological states that change and accumulate during the crop's life course can significantly affect the eventual phenotypic differences in agronomic traits among crop varieties. Thus, to improve productivity, it is important to elucidate the associations between temporal physiological responses during the growth of different crop varieties and their agronomic traits. However, data representing the dynamics and diversity of physiological states in plants grown under field conditions is sparse. In this study, we quantified the endogenous levels of five phytohormones-auxin, cytokinins, abscisic acid, jasmonate, and salicylic acid-in the leaves of eight diverse barley (Hordeum vulgare) accessions grown under field conditions sampled weekly over their life course to assess the ongoing fluctuations in hormone levels in the different accessions under field growth conditions. Notably, we observed enormous changes over time in the development-related plant hormones, such as auxin and cytokinins. Using 3' RNA-seq-based transcriptome data from the same samples, we investigated the expression of barley genes orthologous to known hormone-related genes of Arabidopsis throughout the life course. These data illustrated the dynamics and diversity of the physiological states of these field-grown barley accessions. Together our findings provide new insights into plant-environment interaction, highlighting that there is cultivar diversity in physiological responses during growth under field conditions.